Table 1

Population characteristics and Spearman correlations between markers of hyperglycemia in the total population and in participants with normal glucose tolerance, intermediate hyperglycemia, newly diagnosed diabetes, or known diabetes

Total populationNGMIHNDMKDM
n (%)2,7532,122 (77)439 (16)107 (4)85 (3)
Male sex (%)46.944.256.4*47.264.6*‡
Age (years)53.5 ± 6.752.8 ± 6.855.2 ± 6.2*55.8 ± 6.3*56.9 ± 6.0*
Not of Dutch origin (%)10.89.813.2*17.6*13.9
Diabetes duration (years)7.3 (8.14)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.3 ± 18.1130.8 ± 17.4140.9 ± 18.2*146 ± 20.5*†138.6 ± 17.2*‡
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76.6 ± 10.675.5 ± 10.480.2 ± 10.4*82.6 ± 10.5*78.5 ± 9.2 ‡
Weight (kg)79.0 ± 14.677.2 ± 13.584.1 ± 15.9*86.1 ± 15.4*91.0 ± 17.2*†
BMI (kg/m2)26.3 ± 4.025.6 ± 3.727.9 ± 4.2*28.8 ± 4.3*30.0 ± 5.1*†
Waist (cm)89.8 ± 11.887.7 ± 10.795.3 ± 11.7*99.1 ± 11.7*†103.1 ± 15.5*†
Waist-to-hip ratio0.89 ± 0.080.88 ± 0.080.93 ± 0.08*0.95 ± 0.07*0.97 ± 0.07*†
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.5 ± 1.05.4 ± 0.965.7 ± 1.075.7 ± 1.085.0 ± 1.41*†‡
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.51 ± 0.421.56 ± 0.421.38 ± 0.39*1.28 ± 0.38*1.29 ± 0.38*
Triglycerides (mmol/l)§1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.6 (1.2–2.2)*2.0 (1.4–2.7)*†1.7 (1.1–2.6)*
FPG (mmol/l)5.6 ± 0.955.30 ± 0.386.0 ± 0.51*7.7 ± 2.24*†7.9 ± 2.12*†
2-h postload plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.9 ± 2.45.09 ± 1.137.5 ± 1.78*11.50 ± 3.24*†13.2 ± 5.07*†‡
A1C (%)5.5 ± 0.525.3 ± 0.265.6 ± 0.33*6.4 ± 1.25*†6.7 ± 1.16*†‡
A1C vs. fasting plasma glucose‖0.46¶0.26¶0.25¶0.53¶0.71¶
A1C vs. 2-h postload plasma glucose‖0.33¶0.14¶−0.0500.43¶0.79¶
FPG vs. 2-h postload plasma glucose‖0.40¶0.20¶−0.50¶0.130.66¶
  • Values are means ± SD, percentage, or median (25th–75th percentile).

  • *Significantly different from normal glucose tolerance.

  • †Significantly different from intermediate hyperglycemia.

  • ‡Significantly different from newly diagnosed diabetes.

  • §Log-transformed before testing.

  • ‖Spearman correlations.

  • ¶Statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlation. IH, intermediate hyperglycemia; NDM, newly diagnosed diabetes; KDM, known diabetes.