Table 3

Hazard ratios for associations between documentation characteristics and time to HbA1c controla

VariableHazard ratio 
(95% CI)Pb
Female sex0.92 (0.87–0.98)0.005
White race (vs. all nonwhites)0.97 (0.92–1.04)0.40
English speaker1.02 (0.95–1.09)0.57
Income, per $1,000 increase0.998 (0.997–1.00)0.03
Government insurance0.98 (0.92–1.04)0.41
Insulin treatment0.38 (0.35–0.41)<0.001
Obesity during period0.99 (0.92–1.05)0.69
Charlson comorbidity index1.01 (1.00–1.02)<0.001
Rate of HbA1c testing, per 3 months−13.58 (2.94–4.35)<0.001
Rate of medication intensification, per month−13.39 (2.19–5.26)<0.001
Rate of lifestyle counseling, per month−17.70 (5.93–10.00)<0.001
HbA1c level at start of period, per 1% increase0.85 (0.83–0.86)<0.001
Age, per 10-year increase1.07 (1.04–1.10)<0.001
Documentation heterogeneity, per 1-SD increase (0.15 units)c1.06 (1.04–1.12)<0.001
Documentation intensity, per 1-SD increase (45 characters/note)1.27 (1.23–1.31)<0.001
  • Data are hazard ratios as estimated by multivariable Cox regression model adjusted for patient and treatment characteristics.

  • aValues are reported as hazard ratios for reaching an HbA1c value <7.0%.

  • bP values <0.001 are significant when adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing using the Simes-Hochberg method.

  • cDocumentation heterogeneity measured as the normalized Levenshtein distance.