Table 1

Baseline and follow-up characteristics

Mean ± SD*Range (minimum, maximum)
Baseline
    Age (years)32.6 ± 5.622.0, 42.6
    BMI (kg/m2)30.6 ± 4.918.2, 45.4
    Body percent fat†44.3 ± 5.828, 57
    Fasting total cholesterol (mg/dl)173.8 ± 30.5114, 251
    Fasting HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)39.5 ± 10.520, 74
    Fasting LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)105.9 ± 30.750.2, 166.2
    Fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)136.1 ± 71.243, 374
    Fasting FFA (μmol/l)500 ± 205265, 1,372
    Adiponectin (ng/ml)6,326 ± 2,1791,099, 12,002
    CRP (ng/ml)28.6 ± 30.830, 233
    Leptin (ng/ml)11.8 ± 4.55, 33
    IL-6 (pg/ml)2.4 ± 1.20.6, 7.7
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl)‡96.8 ± 8.582, 116
    2-h glucose (mg/dl)‡142.6 ± 30.464, 194
    Fasting insulin (μU/ml)‡17.0 ± 9.13, 56
    2-h insulin (μU/ml)‡105.5 ± 72.316, 446
    Δ Insulin at 30 min (μU/ml)§82.2 ± 43.114, 321
    Insulin sensitivity (SI, min−1 per μU/ml × 10−4)‖1.44 ± 0.460.5, 5.5
    Acute insulin response (AIRg, μU/ml × min)¶514 ± 25747, 4,803
    DI (SI × AIRg)#726 ± 24950, 2,249
Rates of change during follow-up
    Weight (kg/year)0.75 ± 1.18‡‡−2.4, 4.5
    Body fat (kg/year)†0.56 ± 1.01‡‡−2.4, 3.7
    Fasting FFA (μmol/l per year)96 ± 138‡‡−236, 445
    Adiponectin (ng/ml per year)−211 ± 532††−2,327, 771
    CRP (log ng/ml per year)−0.02 ± 0.32−1.07, 1.49
    Leptin (ng/ml per year)1.34 ± 2.18‡‡−3.48, 8.07
    IL-6 (pg/ml per year)−0.07 ± 0.38−0.94, 1.25
    SI (log unit per year)−0.02 ± 0.14−0.48, 0.51
    AIRg (log unit per year)−0.08 ± 0.14‡‡−0.60, 0.20
    DI (log unit per year)−0.06 ± 0.08‡‡−0.21, 0.15
  • n = 60.

  • *Geometric means ± SDs were presented for baseline CRP, fasting and 2-h insulin, Δinsulin at 30 min, insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, and DI.

  • †Estimated by bioelectrical impedance.

  • ‡During 75-g OGTTs.

  • §30 min minus baseline value for plasma insulin.

  • ‖Calculated by minimal model analysis of IVGTT insulin and glucose data.

  • ¶Incremental insulin area during first 10 min of IVGTT.

  • #A measure of β-cell compensation for insulin resistance. Significant changes:

  • ††P < 0.01,

  • ‡‡P < 0.001. To convert the glucose in units of mg/dl to the SI unit of mmol/l, multiply the number in the table by 0.0555.