Table 1

Anthropometry, glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations and blood pressure in ODMs, control subjects, and ODFs, at the age of 5 and 9.5 years

GirlsBoys
Follow-up at 9.5 yearsFollow-up at 9.5 years
ODMs (n = 23)P1Control subjects (n = 191)P2ODFs (n = 19)ODMs (n = 12)P1Control subjects (n = 190)P2ODFs (n = 20)
Anthropometry
    Height (cm)132.2 ± 6.30.2130.4 ± 5.90.6129.7 ± 6.1130.8 ± 6.30.8131.3 ± 5.50.4132.3 ± 5.6
    BMI (kg/m2)16.4 (14.8–17.8)<0.00114.3 (13.3–15.4)0.914.3 (13.1–15.6)15.2 (13.8–16.6)0.0714.2 (13.4–15.4)0.414.8 (13.9–15.5)
    MUAC (cm)20.1 ± 2.3<0.00117.9 ± 2.00.818.0 ± 1.919.1 ± 1.90.0417.9 ± 2.00.418.3 ± 1.6
    Triceps (mm)14.9 ± 4.7<0.00110.5 ± 3.10.211.4 ± 2.710.3 ± 3.60.18.8 ± 3.20.98.9 ± 2.2
    Subscapular (mm)14.1 (8.2–17.3)<0.0017.6 (6.2–9.4)0.0068.4 (7.5–12.9)7.15 (5.8–8.8)0.26.0 (5.3–7.9)0.76.3 (5.4–8.1)
Glucose/insulin
    Glucose0 (mmol/l)4.6 ± 0.40.74.7 ± 0.40.34.8 ± 0.54.7 ± 0.40.64.7 ± 0.40.94.7 ± 0.5
    Glucose30 (mmol/l)7.7 ± 1.00.0026.9 ± 1.30.26.5 ± 1.26.8 ± 1.30.96.7 ± 1.30.56.5 ± 1.6
    Glucose120 (mmol/l)5.4 ± 0.90.25.2 ± 0.90.85.1 ± 0.85.1 ± 0.70.95.0 ± 1.00.9995.0 ± 1.2
    Insulin0 (pmol/l)35 (25–48)0.00325 (18–37)0.9526 (18–34)32.1 (26.3–40.1)0.00117 (11–27)0.0122 (15–34)
    Insulin30 (pmol/l)432 (302–597)<0.001261 (167–418)0.6246 (157–380)197 (124–392)0.99194 (118–338)0.9162 (137–342)
    Insulin120 (pmol/l)172 (101–244)0.006118 (80–176)0.3116 (78–150)95 (45–174)0.678 (52–130)0.3108 (67–158)
Cardiovascular disease risk factors
    Insulin resistance (HOMA)1.2 (0.8–1.6)0.0060.9 (0.63–1.30)0.950.9 (0.6–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.4)0.0020.6 (0.36–0.94)0.030.8 (0.5–1.2)
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.1 ± 0.50.21.0 ± 0.40.50.9 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.30.60.8 ± 0.30.90.9 ± 0.3
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.0 ± 0.20.21.1 ± 0.20.41.0 ± 0.21.2 ± 0.30.41.1 ± 0.20.71.1 ± 0.2
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)103.8 ± 8.00.0299.4 ± 8.50.8100.0 ± 8.3106 ± 12.00.2101.9 ± 8.90.8102.5 ± 7.3
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)59.8 ± 4.80.0957.9 ± 6.60.957.8 ± 6.660.3 ± 7.60.458.6 ± 6.90.958.4 ± 7.5
Physical activity
    Total counts (n)388,977 ± 91,7300.3415,458 ± 126,9250.7399,763 ± 135,255443,025 ± 87,6480.3482,348 ± 126,7900.4514,960 ± 212,854
    Vigorous activity (min)15.8 ± 11.30.219.1 ± 12.50.819.9 ± 15.120.9 ± 10.90.227.2 ± 14.20.430.9 ± 18.9
Follow-up at 5 yearsFollow-up at 5 years
    Triceps skinfold (cm)10.1 (7.8–10.6)0.0078.0 (6.8–9.3)0.68.3 (7.2–9.3)7.2 (5.9–8.4)0.77.0 (6.2–8.1)0.27.6 (6.7–8.7)
    Subscapular skinfold (cm)7.8 (5.8–8.7)0.0055.9 (5.0–7.5)0.76.0 (5.3–7.9)5.2 (4.6–6.2)0.95.2 (4.7–6.1)0.35.6 (5.0–6.7)
    Glucose120 (mmol/l)6.1 ± 1.20.25.8 ± 0.90.46.0 ± 1.06.0 ± 0.60.96.0 ± 1.00.0065.3 ± 1.1
    Insulin30 (pmol/l)217 (154–300)0.01172 (104–228)0.4164 (126–233)168 (84–242)0.8117 (73–207)0.5157 (88–255)
    Insulin120 (pmol/l)114 (74–192)0.04992 (63–131)0.183 (36–129)85 (63–156)0.580 (53–118)0.0150 (26–80.0)
    Insulin resistance (HOMA)1.1 (0.6–1.3)0.20.8 (0.5–1.2)0.70.8 (0.6–1.2)1.0 (0.4–1.1)0.50.7 (0.4–1.0)0.20.7 (0.4–1.3)
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)99.0 ± 8.20.0895.8 ± 8.10.895.4 ± 9.4101.2 ± 8.70.197.2 ± 8.90.698.2 ± 6.1
  • Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range). P1 for the difference between ODMs and control subjects; P2 for the difference between ODFs and control subjects.