Table 2

Change in outcome measures from baseline

Walnut-enriched ad libitumAd libitum diet without walnutsP
FMD (%)2.2 ± 1.7*1.2 ± 1.6*0.04
Stimulus-adjusted response measure0.01 ± 0.050.04 ± 0.140.37
BMI (kg/m2)−0.0 ± 1.40.3 ± 0.90.44
Weight (kg)0.1 ± 3.20.7 ± 2.20.46
Waist circumference (cm)−0.0 ± 6.10.3 ± 4.10.87
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)4.0 ± 9.2−4.9 ± 11.70.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.6 ± 4.6−2.5 ± 6.40.02
Mean blood pressure (mmHg)2.8 ± 6.2−3.7 ± 8.40.01
Fasting serum glucose (mg/dl)10.0 ± 20.5*2.9 ± 21.50.27
Serum insulin (mIU/ml)3.6 ± 10.4−3.4 ± 8.00.02
Insulin resistance0.2 ± 0.9−0.2 ± 0.70.10
Plasma A1C (%)−0.0 ± 0.3−0.0 ± 0.30.85
Serum total cholesterol (mg/dl)−9.7 ± 14.5*−4.5 ± 23.00.38
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl)−1.9 ± 48.38.2 ± 43.40.48
Serum HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)−0.8 ± 6.51.8 ± 7.20.22
Serum LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)−7.7 ± 10.0*−7.8 ± 20.60.97
Serum cholesterol–to-HDL cholesterol−0.2 ± 0.4−0.2 ± 0.50.73
  • Data are means ± SD. n = 22. P values were obtained from repeated-measures ANOVA.

  • *P < 0.05 from paired Student t test.