Table 1

Description of the studies included in the meta-analysis

AuthorCohortSexFollow-up (years)Age (years)Quality score*ExposureExposure assessmentOutcome assessment†IncidenceAdjusted variables†
Ayas et al. (8)NHSWomen10.040–6516SDQuestionnaireValidated questionnaire2.95‡1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9
Kawakami et al. (16)Electrical Co.Men8.0NA8DIS, DMSQuestionnaireWHO criteria1.68‡1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8
Nilsson et al. (9)MPPMen15.2Mean 46.217DISQuestionnaireQuestionnaire and FBG4.3%§1, 3, 4, 5, 8
Björkelund et al. (10)GothenburgWomen32.038–6015SDInterviewMultiple diagnoses8.7%§1
Mallon et al. (11)Co. of DalarnaCombined1040–7017SD, DIS, DMSQuestionnaireQuestionnaire9.1%, 6.1%§1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9
Meisinger et al. (17)MONICACombined7.525–7417DIS, DMSQuestionnaireSelf-reported validated3.85, 2.18‡1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8
Yaggi et al. (12)MMASMen13–1740–7015SDQuestionnaireEvidence of diagnosis6.11‡1, 3, 6, 8
Gangwisch et al. (13)NHANES ICombined8–1032–8616SDQuestionnaireMultiple methods4.8%§1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8
Hayashino et al. (15)HIPOP-OHPCombined4.219–6917SD, DIS, DMSQuestionnaireMultiple methods3.5%§1, 2, 3, 6
Beihl et al. (14)IRASCombined5.040–6915SDQuestionnaireOGTT16.3%§1, 3, 5, 6, 8
  • *Data from ref. 18.

  • †1, age, body mass, and sex (when combined); 2, leisure-time physical activity; 3, smoking; 4, alcohol consumption; 5, family history of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol; 6, hypertension; 7, depression; 8, socioeconomic variables; 9, snoring.

  • ‡Per 1,000 person-years.

  • §Cumulative incidence. DIS, difficulty in initiating sleep; DMS, difficulty in maintaining sleep; FBG, fasting blood glucose; NHANES I, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I; NHS, Nurses Health Study; HIPOP-OHP, High-Risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion; IRAS, Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study; MMAS, Massachusetts Male Aging Study; MONICA, Monitoring Trends and Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease; MPP, Malmo Preventive Project; NA, not applicable; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test. SD, sleep duration; WHO, World Health Organization.