Table 2

Baseline characteristics and changes of clinical parameters and medication in type 2 diabetic patients with baseline A1C ≥7% after receiving a 12-month intervention or usual care (control)

BaselineChanges from baseline to 12 months
InterventionControlP valueInterventionControlP value
n56605660
Baseline characteristics
    Age (years)55.8 ± 8.257.4 ± 7.50.286
    Diabetes duration (years)5.2 ± 4.55.5 ± 4.70.665
    Male sex (%)23 (41.1)31 (51.7)0.253
Education
    <6 year primary school34 (60.7)45 (75.0)0.099
    >6 year primary school22 (39.3)15 (25.0)
Medication use
    Glucose-lowering treatment
Sulfonylurea54 (96.4)57 (95.0)1.000
Biguanide45 (80.4)50 (83.3)0.677
Thiazolidinedione7 (12.5)14 (23.3)0.130
Other oral hypoglycemia agent0 (0.0)2 (3.3)0.496
    Lipid-lowing treatment
Gemfibrozil2 (3.6)0 (0.0)0.231
Statins21 (37.5)13 (21.7)0.061
Fibrate0 (0.0)1 (1.7)1.000
    Antihypertensive treatment
Diuretics1 (1.8)2 (3.3)1.000
β-Blocker0 (0.0)2 (3.3)0.496
α-Blocker1 (1.8)1 (1.7)1.000
Calcium-channel blocker17 (30.4)20 (33.3)0.731
ACE inhibitor7 (12.5)9 (15.0)0.696
Angiotensin receptor blocker4 (7.1)7 (11.7)0.531
Aspirins4 (7.1)8 (13.3)0.365
Clinical measurements
    Height (cm)159.3 ± 8.2161.2 ± 8.40.206−0.1 ± 1.3−0.2 ± 1.00.769
    BMI (kg/m2)25.7 ± 3.226.8 ± 4.20.0930.2 ± 1.30.2 ± 1.30.953
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)132.4 ± 20.9134.3 ± 18.90.6270.5 ± 16.88.6 ± 17.40.012
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.1 ± 10.584.2 ± 10.40.0380.6 ± 11.50.4 ± 10.00.945
    Glucose (mg/dl)160.8 ± 49.6173.7 ± 52.70.178−13.4 ± 55.216.9 ± 63.60.007
    A1C (%)8.6 ± 1.29.0 ± 1.50.087−0.7 ± 1.1−0.2 ± 1.70.034
    Triglyceride (mg/dl)157.9 ± 97.7161.8 ± 126.20.856−9.7 ± 67.93.6 ± 111.80.445
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl)183.8 ± 38.1191.5 ± 39.40.290−5.8 ± 38.9−0.3 ± 44.70.485
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)48.4 ± 10.747.8 ± 11.20.7780.6 ± 10.60.0 ± 8.10.734
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)119.5 ± 32.0123.5 ± 32.30.500−7.3 ± 35.1−1.9 ± 37.20.430
    GPT (units/l)37.6 ± 27.538.8 ± 34.50.840−2.8 ± 18.10.0 ± 22.90.468
    Creatinine(mg/dl)0.8 ± 0.30.8 ± 0.20.6620.0 ± 0.40.0 ± 0.20.883
    Uric acid(mg/dl)5.5 ± 1.65.6 ± 2.10.8190.5 ± 1.30.3 ± 1.80.451
    hs-CRP (mg/dl)0.5 ± 1.50.3 ± 0.30.540−0.1 ± 1.8−0.1 ± 0.30.908
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). A t test or χ2 test (Fisher test was used as n < 5) was used to test differences between the intervention and control subjects at baseline. A t test was also used to determine the changes in clinical parameters between the two groups after a 1-year intervention. P < 0.05 is considered significantly different. GPT, glutamic pyruvic transanimase; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.