Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to blood pressure status

Normal
(n = 4,809)Prehypertension
(n = 2,141)Stage 1 hypertension
(n = 804)Stage 2 hypertension
(n = 605)P*
Age (years)49.2 ± 7.253.4 ± 8.754.0 ± 8.458.1 ± 7.9<0.001
Male sex2,139 (44.5)1,135 (53.0)418 (52.0)238 (39.3)<0.001
SBP (mmHg)104.7 ± 9.0124.4 ± 6.9139.9 ± 9.8142.6 ± 21.3<0.001
DBP (mmHg)67.7 ± 7.680.1 ± 5.789.7 ± 5.888.4 ± 13.0<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 ± 2.924.8 ± 3.125.3 ± 3.225.8 ± 3.4<0.001
Waist circumference80.3 ± 8.284.1 ± 8.485.6 ± 8.487.4 ± 8.7<0.001
Body fat (%)26.1 ± 7.126.5 ± 7.127.6 ± 7.029.9 ± 7.0<0.001
Center: Ansung1,973 (41.0)1,233 (57.6)486 (60.4)514 (85)<0.001
Family history of diabetes579 (12.0)188 (8.8)67 (8.3)38 (6.3)<0.001
Current smoker1,216 (25.3)572 (26.7)213 (26.5)102 (16.9)<0.001
Alcohol intake (≥420 kcal/week)943 (19.6)564 (26.3)235 (29.2)107 (17.7)<0.001
Current drinker2,425 (50.4)1,174 (54.8)438 (54.5)262 (43.3)<0.001
Regular exercise1,768 (36.8)681 (31.8)241 (30.0)169 (27.9)<0.001
AST (mg/dL)26.4 ± 14.928.3 ± 12.130.6 ± 25.027.8 ± 24.1<0.001
ALT (mg/dL)24.5 ± 21.827.5 ± 17.830.4 ± 34.226.5 ± 19.7<0.001
A1C (%)5.3 ± 0.45.4 ± 0.45.4 ± 0.45.5 ± 0.5<0.001
A1C (mmol/mol)34.6 ± 4.135.6 ± 4.235.7 ± 4.236.2 ± 5.0<0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)83.9 ± 8.585.6 ± 9.486.8 ± 9.686.6 ± 10.0<0.001
Postload 2-h glucose (mg/dL)116.4 ± 29.6120.2 ± 32.7123.1 ± 32.7129.4 ± 32.7<0.001
Fasting insulin (µIU/mL)7.3 ± 4.57.7 ± 5.18.1 ± 4.28.7 ± 4.1<0.001
Postload 2-h insulin (µIU/mL)26.9 ± 24.728.4 ± 27.331.7 ± 29.235.5 ± 34.2<0.001
HOMA-IR index1.51 ± 0.961.64 ± 1.101.76 ± 0.961.87 ± 0.95<0.001
IGI13.2 ± 30.613.5 ± 34.511.5 ± 25.510.9 ± 15.80.422
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)189.7 ± 33.4195.4 ± 35.5197.1 ± 36.7197.8 ± 37.1<0.001
Triglyceride (mg/dL)140.5 ± 91.8161.9 ± 91.4178.9 ± 116.6175.1 ± 102.2<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)46.9 ± 10.746.0 ± 10.846.1 ± 10.946.2 ± 11.90.316
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)117.1 ± 32.1119.6 ± 34.1119.3 ± 38.3120.4 ± 36.00.001
hsCRP (mg/L)0.19 ± 0.360.24 ± 0.430.28 ± 0.800.30 ± 1.03<0.001
  • Data are reported as the mean ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. HOMA-IR = fasting plasma insulin (µIU/mL) × fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)/405; IGI = 60–0 min insulin (µIU/mL)/60–0 min glucose (mmol/L). AST, aspartate aminotransferase.

  • *ANOVA was used for comparison between categories.