Table 1

Characteristics of participants

All participantsParent participantsChild participants
n753441
Age of child (years)13.2 ± 3.99.9 ± 2.915.9 ± 2.3
Participant sex
    Male291839
    Female718261
Age at diagnosis (years)7.6 ± 3.85.7 ± 2.99.2 ± 3.9
Diabetes duration (years)5.6 ± 3.54.3 ± 2.06.7 ± 4.2
Race/ethnicity
    Caucasian858883
    African American8610
    Other767
Parents' education
    College degree525351
    No college degree484749
A1C8.9 ± 1.69.0 ± 1.68.9 ± 1.6
Insulin regimen
    Basal-bolus MDI687166
    CSII212122
    Traditional11912
  • Data are means ± SD or %. CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; MDI, multiple daily injections.