Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the Pittsburgh EDC study PWA population compared with the remaining 18-year follow-up participants

PWA study populationRemaining 18-year EDC population
n144165
Female (%)50.7 (73)52.1 (86)
Age (years)25.9 ± 7.3826.7 ± 7.50
Diabetes duration (years)17.6 ± 6.7018.7 ± 7.34
E/I ratio1.14 ± 0.121.13 ± 0.12
Symptomatic autonomic neuropathy (%)14.5 (19)17.3 (27)
Heart rate (bpm)76.0 ± 12.373.1 ± 11.1*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)111.4 ± 13.1110.2 ± 12.5
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)71.8 ± 10.170.6 ± 10.1
Hypertension (%)22.2 (32)19.4 (32)
HbA1 (%)10.1 ± 1.6910.1 ± 1.71
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)127.2 ± 39.9128.1 ± 36.7
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)54.0 ± 11.055.6 ± 14.1
Triglycerides (mg/dl)72.0 (55.0–101.0)77.0 (58.3–100.0)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.82 ± 0.070.82 ± 0.07
BMI (kg/m2)23.5 ± 3.1023.4 ± 3.37
Albumin excretion rate (μg/min)9.76 (6.16–27.2)12.2 (6.88–67.7)
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.90 (0.70–1.00)0.80 (0.70–1.00)
White blood cell count (×10−9/l)5.85 (5.18–7.00)5.90 (5.20–7.00)
Energy expenditure (kcal/week)450.0 (0.0–1,256.3)425.0 (0.0–1,585.6)
Ever-smoker (%)34.5 (50)28.0 (46)
Prevalent coronary artery disease (%)4.2 (6)3.6 (6)
  • Data are means ± SD, medians (IQR), or % (n) unless otherwise indicated,

  • *P < 0.05.