Table 3

Baseline predictors of AIx, Ln(AP), and SEVR in multivariate linear regression analysis after potential confounder adjustment

Base model
Concurrent age0.<0.001−0.290.07<0.001
Concurrent heart rate−0.430.07<0.001−0.060.01<0.001−0.670.06<0.001
Female sex0.490.−0.380.15<0.001
Concurrent height−0.320.090.001−
PWD use−−
Base model (r2)0.410.370.60
Multivariate model
HDL cholesterol−−
E/I ratio−
Final model (P, r2)<0.0010.49<0.0010.53<0.0010.68
  • Variables are standardized to the population: (variable − mean)/SD. Base models with concurrent age, sex, height, heart rate, and PWD use (i.e., medications with potential effect on PWA measures, such as ACE inhibitor, ARB, calcium channel blocker, β-blocker, and/or nitrate use). Baseline variables available for forward regression: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, non-HDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, white blood cell count, albumin excretion rate, serum creatinine, HbA1, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, energy expenditure in sports at baseline, and E/I ratio.