Table 3

Association of blood pressure with the incidence of diabetes in the Cox proportional hazards models

Normal*
(N = 4,809)Prehypertension
(N = 2,141)Stage 1 hypertension
(N = 804)Stage 2 hypertension§
(N = 605)
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Model A11.48 (1.28–1.70)<0.011.91 (1.58–2.29)<0.012.99 (2.46–3.62)<0.01
Model B11.36 (1.17–1.57)<0.011.59 (1.31–1.92)<0.012.53 (2.07–3.10)<0.01
Model C11.33 (1.15–1.54)<0.011.43 (1.17–1.74)<0.012.11 (1.72–2.58)<0.01
Model D11.23 (1.06–1.42)<0.011.26 (1.04–1.54)<0.051.60 (1.30–1.96)<0.01
  • Model A: adjusted for age, sex, and center; model B: adjusted for model A plus smoking status, exercise habits, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, waist circumference; model C: adjusted for model B plus A1C level, HOMA-IR index, IGI, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT, hsCRP, and use of lipid-lowering agent medication; model D: adjusted for model C plus fasting glucose and postload 2-h glucose levels.

  • *HR reference value; 533 events (11.1%).

  • †364 events (17.0%).

  • ‡142 events (17.7%).

  • §156 events (25.8%).