Table 1

Characteristics of study participants in ET2DS

All subjects
n919
Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables
Age at assessment (years)67.9 (4.2)
Marital status
    Married649 (70.8)
    Living with long-term partner49 (5.3)
    Single131 (14.3)
    Widowed88 (9.6)
Education
    University/college148 (16.1)
    Other professional qualification265 (28.8)
    Secondary school500 (54.4)
    Primary school6 (0.7)
Current smoking120 (13.1)
Alcohol consumption (frequency)
    Never187 (20.5)
    One to four times/month402 (44.0)
    Two to five times/week229 (25.1)
    Six or more times/week96 (10.5)
Cognitive assessment
    Mini-Mental State Examination28.3 (1.9)
    MHVS31.0 (5.2)
    Faces and family pictures subtest65.9 (7.9)
    Logical memory25.2 (8.2)
    LNS9.7 (2.7)
    Matrix reasoning13.0 (5.3)
    DST49.5 (14.9)
    Verbal fluency test36.9 (12.8)
    lnTMT4.68 (0.4)
    General cognitive ability factor (g)0.01 (0.99)
Anxiety and depressive symptoms
    HADS anxiety score5.6 (3.9)
    HADS depression score3.8 ± 2.8
Plasma cortisol levels (nmol/l)733 (192)
Diabetes and metabolic variables
    Duration of diabetes (years)9.1 (6.5)
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.2 (16.3)
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)69.1 (9.1)
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3 (0.9)
    A1C (%)7.4 (1.1)
    BMI (kg/m2)31.3 (5.6)
    Ischemic heart disease (angina or myocardial infarction)278 (30.3)
Myocardial infarction126 (13.7)
Angina252 (27.4)
    ABI*0.98 (0.21)
    Cerebrovascular disease (transient ischemic attack or stroke)81 (8.8)
Treatments
    Treatment of diabetes
Diet alone171 (18.6)
Hypoglycemic oral agents590 (64.2)
Insulin with or without hypoglycemic oral agents158 (17.2)
    Lipid-lowering drugs777 (84.5)
    Antihypertensive treatment725 (78.9)
    Antidepressant(s)108 (11.8)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *ABI, lowest ankle systolic pressure divided by higher of two brachial systolic pressures, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis.