Table 1

Associations between psychosocial and social-environmental factors and diabetes self-management and diabetes control

Change in R2βP
I. Diabetes self-management outcomes
    Medicine adherence
        Step 1: demographic variables0.08<0.0001
        Step 2: psychosocial/environmental factors0.12<0.0001
            Health literacy0.030.50
            Self-efficacy medications0.35<0.0001
            Problem solving−0.030.56
            CIRS total score0.030.48
            PACIC−0.0090.84
    Starting the conversation total eating
        Step 1: demographic variables0.020.09
        Step 2: psychosocial/environmental factors0.23<0.0001
            Health literacy0.010.73
            Self-efficacy for diet0.22<0.0001
            Problem solving0.25<0.0001
            CIRS diet0.280.0002
            PACIC−0.050.27
    Starting the conversation fruits/vegetables
        Step 1: demographic variables0.0030.72
        Step 2: psychosocial/environmental factors0.10<0.0001
            Health literacy−0.050.26
            Self-efficacy for diet0.080.15
            Problem solving0.130.02
            CIRS diet0.170.001
            PACIC0.060.18
    NCI fat screener (% fat)
        Step 1: demographic variables0.040.002
        Step 2: psychosocial/environmental factors0.09<0.0001
            Health literacy−0.090.06
            Self-efficacy for diet−0.080.16
            Problem solving−0.160.003
            CIRS diet−0.130.009
            PACIC0.110.02
    CHAMPS (weekly calories in all activity)
        Step 1: demographic variables0.040.0008
        Step 2: psychosocial/environmental factors0.19<0.0001
            Health literacy−0.030.40
            Self-efficacy for exercise0.180.0002
            Problem solving0.060.32
            CIRS exercise0.32<0.0001
            PACIC0.010.72
II. Diabetes control outcomes
    BMI
        Step 1: demographic variables0.10<0.0001
        Step 2: self-management variables0.040.0004
            Medication adherence0.090.06
            Starting the conversation (diet)−0.170.0003
            % fat (NCI fat screener)0.050.29
            PA calories/week (CHAMPS)0.090.051
    Mean arterial pressure
        Step 1: demographic variables0.030.003
        Step 2: self-management variables0.0080.48
            Medication adherence−0.070.16
            Starting the conversation (diet)0.040.47
            % fat (NCI fat screener)−0.020.67
            PA calories/week (CHAMPS)0.040.48
    Lipid ratio: total–to–HDL
        Step 1: demographic variables0.050.0002
        Step 2: self-management variables0.040.0019
            Medication adherence−0.200.001
            Starting the conversation (diet)0.050.37
            % fat (NCI fat screener)0.030.50
            PA calories/week (CHAMPS)−0.020.66
    Hemoglobin A1C
        Step 1: demographic variables0.16<0.0001
        Step 2: self-management variables0.050.0001
            Medication adherence−0.21<0.0001
            Starting the conversation (diet)−0.060.22
            % fat (NCI fat screener)−0.020.56
            PA calories/week (CHAMPS)0.010.78
    General health state
        Step 1: demographic variables0.050.0001
        Step 2: self-management variables0.06<0.0001
            Medication adherence0.050.33
            Starting the conversation (diet)0.25<0.0001
            % fat (NCI fat screener)0.030.55
            PA calories/week (CHAMPS)0.030.59
    UKPDS (10-year risk)
        Step 1: demographic variables0.00020.79
        Step 2: self-management variables0.0150.21
            Medication adherence0.090.09
            Starting the conversation (diet)0.010.80
            % Fat (NCI fat screener)0.050.36
            PA calories/week (CHAMPS)0.080.11
  • NCI, National Cancer Institute; PA, physical activity.