Table 1

RR of type 2 diabetes according to family history of diabetes during the 20-year follow-up (1984–2004)

No family historyFamily historyFather onlyMother onlySibling only>1 family member
n3,1321,969517727240485
Person-years1,075,728289,88990,785111,88042,42344,800
Adjusted RRs (95% CI)
Age*1 (referent)2.27 (2.14–2.40)2.04 (1.86–2.24)2.18 (2.01–2.36)1.72 (1.51–1.97)3.42 (3.11–3.77)
SES/race1 (referent)2.26 (2.13–2.39)2.08 (1.89–2.29)2.16 (1.99–2.35)1.69 (1.48–1.93)3.36 (3.05–3.71)
Lifestyle1 (referent)2.13 (2.01–2.26)1.97 (1.79–2.16)2.05 (1.89–2.22)1.64 (1.44–1.88)3.06 (2.77–3.37)
BMI§1 (referent)1.91 (1.80–2.02)1.78 (1.61–1.95)1.85 (1.70–2.01)1.47 (1.29–1.69)2.62 (2.37–2.89)
  • A family history of diabetes denotes diabetes in ≥1 first-degree family members.

  • *Adjusted for age (continuous in months).

  • †Model 1 additionally adjusted for occupation of the father (none, professional/managerial, or clerical/sales/services), occupation of the mother (none, professional/managerial, or clerical/sales/services), husband's highest degree (less than high school, some high school, high school graduate, college graduate, or graduate school), participant's highest degree (registered nurse, bachelor, master, or doctoral), and race (white, black, Asian, or other).

  • ‡Model 2 additionally adjusted for smoking (never, past, or current smoker: ≤14, 15–24, or ≥25 cigarettes/day), physical activity (<1.0, 1.0–1.9, 2.0–3.9, 4.0–6.9, or ≥7.0 h/week), intake of coffee (0, 0.1–0.9, 1.0–1.9, 2.0–3.9, 4.0–5.9, or ≥6 cups/day), alcohol (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–9.9, or ≥10.0 g/day), fruit (quintiles), vegetables (quintiles), sugar-sweetened beverages (quintiles), whole grains (quintiles), red meat (quintiles), trans-fat (quintiles), total energy (quintiles), and polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio (quintiles).

  • §Model 3 additionally adjusted for BMI (<21, 21–23, 23–25, 25–27, 27–30, 30–33, 33–35, 35–40, or >40 kg/m2).