Table 2

Demographic and hospital characteristics of delivery hospitalizations by diabetes type in the U.S., 1994–2004

All diabetesGDMType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesNo diabetes
n1,863,7461,578,703130,30087,47741,257,962
Age (years) (%)*
    15–2417.016.325.216.036.6
    25–3456.857.154.955.250.5
    ≥3526.226.619.928.813.0
Hospital location (%)*
    Rural10.610.79.69.013.3
    Urban89.489.390.491.086.7
Primary expected payer (%)*
    Medicaid/Medicare34.133.137.943.336.7
    Other (i.e., self-pay)5.55.54.85.16.7
    Private60.561.457.351.656.6
Region of hospital (%)
    Northeast17.918.515.212.317.5
    Midwest21.421.423.718.622.7
    South35.935.139.441.535.0
    West24.725.021.827.624.8
Mode of delivery (%)*
    Vaginal60.162.541.649.076.9
    Cesarean39.937.558.451.023.1
No. of procedures2.3 ± 0.012.3 ± 0.012.3 ± 0.022.3 ± 0.032.1 ± 0.01
No. of diagnoses*5.2 ± 0.025.0 ± 0.026.6 ± 0.036.7 ± 0.043.6 ± 0.01
Length of stay (days)*3.1 ± 0.023.0 ± 0.014.4 ± 0.053.7 ± 0.042.4 ± 0.01
    Vaginal deliveries2.4 ± 0.012.3 ± 0.013.3 ± 0.052.8 ± 0.042.0 ± 0.01
    Cesarean deliveries4.3 ± 0.034.1 ± 0.035.2 ± 0.074.5 ± 0.053.7 ± 0.01
Charges (U.S. $)*8,876 ± 1038,488 ± 10011,811 ± 16110,938 ± 1936,635 ± 62
    Vaginal deliveries6,658 ± 716,468 ± 718,833 ± 1538,071 ± 1575,417 ± 51
    Cesarean deliveries12,184 ± 15611,830 ± 15413,922 ± 20813,632 ± 24910,678 ± 103
  • Data are % or means ± SEM.

  • *P < 0.001 between the diabetes and no diabetes groups (χ2 and t tests) and between the no diabetes group and the four diabetes types (χ2 test and ANOVA).

  • †Based on U.S. Census regions.

  • ‡All charges adjusted for 2004 U.S. dollars.