Table 1

Background characteristics and diabetes prevalence by OGTT and A1C diagnostic criteria in different ethnic groups

DenmarkU.K.AustraliaGreenlandKenyaIndia
Inter99Whitehall II (phase 7)AusDiabInuit Health in TransitionCURES
Study period1999–20012002–20041999–20002005–20092005–20062001–2004
n5,9324,5637,8002,3212962,182
Age (years)46.2 ± 7.960.5 ± 5.950.9 ± 14.444.1 ± 14.637.6 ± 10.638.8 ± 12.6
Male subjects (%)49.7 (48.4–51.0)73.9 (72.6–75.2)44.4 (43.3–45.5)43.4 (41.4–45.5)44.6 (38.8–50.5)46.0 (43.9–48.1)
BMI (kg/m2)26.2 ± 4.526.5 ± 4.226.9 ± 4.926.4 ± 5.122.1 ± 4.623.0 ± 4.0
Waist circumference (cm)86.5 ± 13.293.2 ± 12.090.6 ± 13.891.9 ± 13.379.9 ± 12.283.0 ± 11.4
Current smoker (%)36.0 (34.8–37.2)6.8 (6.1–7.6)16.3 (15.5–17.2)66.1 (64.1–68.0)10.5 (7.3–14.6)18.6 (17.0–20.3)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.5 ± 0.85.3 ± 0.75.4 ± 0.75.7 ± 0.84.5 ± 0.95.1 ± 1.7
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)6.2 ± 2.16.5 ± 2.06.2 ± 2.25.9 ± 2.45.6 ± 1.77.0 ± 3.5
A1C (%)5.8 ± 0.55.2 ± 0.55.1 ± 0.45.7 ± 0.45.0 ± 0.65.9 ± 1.2
Diabetes by OGTT (%)4.2 (3.7–4.8)3.7 (3.2–4.3)4.0 (3.6–4.4)7.0 (6.0–8.1)3.4 (1.6–6.1)10.2 (9.0–11.6)
Diabetes by A1C (%)6.7 (6.1–7.3)1.0 (0.7–1.3)0.7 (0.5–0.9)3.9 (3.1–4.7)1.4 (0.4–3.4)12.9 (11.5–14.4)
A1C ≥6.5% given diabetes by OGTT (%)42.6 (36.4–49)25.0 (18.7–32.3)17.0 (13.0–21.7)29.6 (22.7–37.3)20.0 (2.5–55.6)78.0 (72.0–83.3)
Diabetes by OGTT given A1C ≥6.5% (%)27.0 (22.7–31.7)91.3 (79.2–97.6)98.1 (90.1–100)53.3 (42.5–63.9)50.0 (6.8–93.2)61.9 (56.0–67.6)
  • Data are means ± SD and proportions (95% CI). Diabetes by OGTT: fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l or 2-h plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l. Diabetes by A1C: A1C ≥6.5%.