Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 6,111 men and women without prevalent type 2 diabetes by baseline depressive symptoms: English Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2002–2003

CES-D <4CES-D ≥4P
n5,288823
Age (years)63.6 ± 9.364.0 ± 9.80.24
Sex<0.001
    Male2,453 (46.4)256 (31.1)
    Female2,835 (53.6)567 (68.9)
Marital status<0.001
    Nonmarried1,506 (28.5)388 (47.1)
    Married3,782 (71.5)435 (52.9)
Education<0.001
    Degree or equivalent706 (13.3)59 (7.2)
    Higher education or equivalent687 (13.0)72 (8.7)
    General certificate of education: advanced level or equivalent376 (7.1)45 (5.5)
    General certificate of education: ordinary level or equivalent977 (18.5)126 (15.3)
    Certificate of secondary education245 (4.6)36 (4.4)
    Foreign or other type of qualifications481 (9.1)64 (7.8)
    No qualification1,816 (34.4)421 (51.1)
Total net non-pension household wealth* [median (interquartile range)] (£)160,010 (217,490)81,962 (175,950)<0.001
Any longstanding illness or disability<0.001
    No2,735 (51.7)233 (28.3)
    Yes2,553 (48.3)590 (71.7)
Cardiovascular comorbidity<0.001
    No cardiovascular disease2,984 (56.4)409 (49.7)
    At least one cardiovascular disease2,304 (43.6)414 (50.3)
Other noncardiovascular comorbidity<0.001
    No noncardiovascular disease2,862 (54.1)245 (29.8)
    At least one noncardiovascular disease2,426 (45.9)578 (70.2)
Smoking status<0.001
    Never a smoker2,024 (38.3)245 (29.8)
    Exsmoker2,447 (46.3)353 (42.9)
    Current smoker817 (15.4)225 (27.3)
Physical activity at least once a week<0.001
    Not at all274 (5.2)106 (12.9)
    Mild562 (10.6)178 (21.6)
    Moderate2,658 (50.3)380 (46.2)
    Vigorous1,794 (33.9)159 (19.3)
Frequency of alcohol consumption<0.001
    Twice a day or more often217 (4.1)27 (3.3)
    Daily or almost daily1,365 (25.8)182 (22.1)
    Once or twice a week1,800 (34.0)205 (24.9)
    Once or twice a month593 (11.2)86 (10.6)
    Only on special occasions898 (17.0)200 (24.3)
    Not at all415 (7.9)123 (14.9)
BMI (kg/m2)27.5 ± 4.427.8 ± 5.00.045
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *This is total household wealth (excluding pension savings) minus household debt.

  • †Cardiovascular comorbidities included hypertension, angina, heart attack, congestive heart failure, heart murmur, abnormal heart rhythm, and stroke; noncardiovascular comorbidities included chronic lung disease, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer/malignant tumor excluding minor skin cancers, Parkinson's disease, emotional/nervous/psychiatric problems, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia or other serious memory impairment.