Table 2

Incidence and HRs (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes by baseline depressive symptoms in 6,111 men and women: English Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2002–2007

CES-D <4CES-D ≥4
    Incident cases (n)15851
    Follow-up (person-years)20,2623,051
    Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes (per 1,000 person-years)7.816.7
Cox regression models*
    Model 1: adjusted for age (linear term)1.0 (reference category)2.14 (1.56–2.94)
    Model 2: model 1 + adjusted for age (quadratic term), sex, marital status, self-reported longstanding illness or disability, and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities1.0 (reference category)2.00 (1.44–2.79)
    Model 3: model 2 + adjusted for educational attainment and total household wealth1.0 (reference category)1.74 (1.24–2.45)
    Model 4: model 3 + adjusted for BMI1.0 (reference category)1.76 (1.25–2.46)
    Model 5: model 3 + adjusted for health behaviors1.0 (reference category)1.58 (1.12–2.24)
    Model 6: model 3 + adjusted for BMI and health behaviors1.0 (reference category)1.62 (1.15–2.29)
  • *Results are presented in the form of HR (95% CI).

  • †Cardiovascular comorbidities included hypertension, angina, heart attack, congestive heart failure, heart murmur, abnormal heart rhythm, and stroke. Noncardiovascular comorbidities included chronic lung disease, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer/malignant tumor excluding minor skin cancers, Parkinson's disease, emotional/nervous/psychiatric problems, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia or other serious memory impairment.

  • ‡This is total household wealth (excluding pension savings) minus household debt.