Table 2

Differences in concentration of cells and proteins reflecting inflammation and immune system between normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes

P
NormoglycemiaPrediabetesDiabetesFor trend(Normoglycemia vs. prediabetes)(Normoglycemia vs. diabetes)(Prediabetes vs. diabetes)
Size (n)12,1521,4251,299
WBCs (109/L)6.80 (5.76, 8.12)7.30 (6.09, 8.60)7.60 (6.36, 8.90)<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Granulocytes (109/L)4.24 (3.41, 5.29)4.53 (3.59, 5.55)4.74 (3.85, 5.81)<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Lymphocytes (109/L)1.78 (1.45, 2.19)1.89 (1.51, 2.35)1.89 (1.49, 2.35)<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.53
Monocytes (109/L)0.40 (0.32, 0.48)0.42 (0.34, 0.53)0.46 (0.37, 0.56)<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Platelets (109/L)269 (230, 312)270 (235, 325)262 (218, 308)0.550.0013<0.0001<0.0001
IL-1RA (pg/mL)310.7 (233, 408)350.8 (271, 485)404.9 (298, 545)<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
IL-18 (pg/mL)222 (178, 285)233 (181, 298)260 (204, 334)<0.00010.05<0.0001<0.0001
CRP (mg/L)1.40 (0.50, 2.90)2.30 (1.20, 4.40)2.40 (1.30, 5.10)<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.0078
Neopterin (pmol/L)5.40 (4.70, 6.30)5.40 (4.70, 6.30)5.90 (5.10, 7.37)<0.00010.76<0.0001<0.0001
Albumin (g/L)42 (40, 44)41 (39, 43)41 (39, 43)<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.34
Fibrinogen (mg/dL)315 (273, 366)345 (298, 410)359 (308, 417)<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.00038
Hematocrit (%)41.9 (39.7, 44.2)42.2 (39.9, 44.4)41.9 (39.6, 44.3)0.570.0980.430.08
  • Participants having type 1 diabetes, other types, or not specified were excluded (n = 134). Data are presented as median (Q1, Q3).