Table 1

Demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of depressed and nondepressed men and women

MenP valueWomenP value
DepressedNot depressedDepressedNot depressed
n45788105794
Age (years)31.4 ± 2.831.1 ± 2.50.5830.7 ± 2.530.9 ± 2.70.56
Married or living as married26 (58)544 (69)0.1164 (61)543 (68)0.13
Professional/managers19 (42.2)489 (62.1)0.0446 (43.8)429 (54)0.25
Education
    School only14 (31)187 (24)0.2135 (33)206 (26)0.14
    Vocational training19 (42)288 (36)29 (28)201 (25)
    Higher degree12 (27)313 (40)41 (39)387 (49)
Smoking
    Never19 (42)474 (60)0.0347 (45)462 (58)0.03
    Former9 (20)141 (18)33 (31)174 (22)
    Current17 (38)173 (22)25 (24)158 (20)
Leisure time physical activity
    No physical activity12 (27)209 (27)0.4537 (35)175 (22)0.01
    <120 min/week13 (29)181 (23)28 (27)205 (26)
    120–240 min/week13 (29)196 (25)25 (24)235 (30)
    >240 min/week7 (16)202 (26)15 (14)179 (23)
Current alcohol drinking43 (96)721 (92)0.3480 (76)662 (83)0.07
Frequency of weekly fish consumption1.5 (0.75−3.0)1.5 (1.0−2.9)0.611.0 (0−2.0)1.5 (1.0−3.0)<0.0001
Waist circumference92.5 ± 11.590.0 ± 10.50.1281.5 ± 14.278.0 ± 10.80.02
BMI ≥25 kg/m230 (67)489 (62)0.5449 (47)295 (37)0.06
Taking antidepressants9 (20)9 (1)<0.000133 (31)20 (2)<0.0001
Oral contraceptivesNANA14 (13)177 (22)0.03
PCOSNANA12 (11)41 (5)0.01
Fasting insulin (mU/l)7.2 (5.7−11.4)6.4 (4.7−9.3)0.076.6 (4.7−10.8)6.0 (4.7−8.4)0.09
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.2 (5.0−5.6)5.2 (4.9−5.4)0.164.9 (4.6−5.2)4.8 (4.6−5.1)0.33
Insulin resistance1.04 ± 0.560.89 ± 0.570.040.91 ± 0.420.83 ± 0.370.02
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range). NA, not applicable.