Table 3

Regression of insulin resistance on depression status adjusted for demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in men and women

ModelsRatio of means (95% CI)*P value
Men (n = 833)
    Unadjusted1.172 (1.007 − 1.364)0.04
        Model 1 (age and education)1.163 (0.999 − 1.354)0.05
        Model 1 plus behavioral factors1.175 (1.012 − 1.366)0.03
        Model 1 plus dietary factors1.172 (1.008 − 1.362)0.04
        Model 1 plus medications§1.113 (0.949 − 1.303)0.19
    Fully adjusted model1.132 (0.969 − 1.323)0.12
Women (n = 899)
    Unadjusted1.114 (1.015 − 1.221)0.02
        Model 1 (age and education)1.100 (1.004 − 1.206)0.04
        Model 1 plus behavioral factors1.096 (1.000 − 1.203)0.05
        Model 1 plus dietary factors1.089 (0.999 − 1.196)0.07
        Model 1 plus medications§1.088 (0.984 − 1.203)0.10
        Model 1 plus PCOS1.088 (0.993 − 1.193)0.07
    Fully adjusted model1.061 (0.959 − 1.174)0.25
  • Data are ratios of means (95% CI).

  • *Mean insulin resistance of depressed subjects relative to mean insulin resistance of subjects who were not depressed.

  • †Behavioral factors were physical activity and smoking.

  • ‡Dietary factors were alcohol and fish consumption.

  • §Medications were antidepressants and oral contraceptive use (women only).

  • ‖Variables remaining in the fully adjusted model for men were age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, and use of antidepressants and for women were age, education, PCOS, fish consumption, and use of antidepressants.