Table 1

Characteristics of the study sample stratified by parental overweight status

None overweight*Only one overweight*Both overweight*P
n592852344
Age (years)12.2 ± 3.012.4 ± 3.012.8 ± 3.00.368
Puberty stage (%)<0.001
    Stage I48.939.833.8
    Stage II7.912.712.6
    Stage III5.44.54.8
    Stage IV15.417.418.8
    Stage V22.425.530.2
Female sex (%)46.445.247.80.706
BMI (kg/m2)17.8 ± 2.718.9 ± 3.220.0 ± 3.4<0.001
BMI Z score−0.291 ± 0.800.079 ± 1.040.427 ± 0.9<0.001
Sum of 5 skinfold thickness (mm)41.5 ± 16.847.4 ± 21.253.2 ± 24.5<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)62.0 ± 7.264.3 ± 8.866.9 ± 9.3<0.001
Glucose (mmol/l)5.00 ± 0.425.03 ± 0.555.01 ± 0.420.370
Insulin (pmol/l)54.6 ± 41.556.8 ± 35.058.3 ± 33.80.036
HOMA-IR1.80 ± 1.541.85 ± 1.191.93 ± 1.130.862
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.31 ± 0.774.35 ± 0.794.27 ± 0.730.401
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.39 ± 0.301.39 ± 0.301.36 ± 0.300.540
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.77 ± 0.320.79 ± 0.330.81 ± 0.560.461
Fibrinogen (g/l)2.67 ± 0.502.70 ± 0.582.78 ± 0.590.026
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)106.8 ± 10.1108.0 ± 10.6109.6 ± 11.70.007
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)62.2 ± 7.162.4 ± 6.762.8 ± 6.40.588
Mean arterial pressure77.0 ± 7.377.6 ± 7.178.4 ± 7.20.091
Fitness (ml · kg−1 · min−1)42.3 ± 7.341.0 ± 7.940.3 ± 8.0<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *Adjusted with maternal and paternal age.

  • †Analysis was performed on log-transformed data, but nontransformed data are presented in the table.

  • ‡Mean arterial pressure = diastolic pressure + [0.333 × (systolic blood pressure − diastolic pressure)].