Table 2

Multiple regression coefficients (β) and SEM examining the association of maternal and paternal BMI with cardiovascular disease risk factors in offspring

Maternal BMIPaternal BMI
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
βSEMPnβSEMPnβSEMPnβSEMPn
BMI (kg/m2)0.1430.013<0.0011,9560.1520.017<0.0011,734
Sum of 5 skinfolds (mm)*0.9570.100<0.0011,9560.9000.132<0.0011,691
Waist circumference (cm)*0.2800.031<0.0011,9560.0590.0220.0071,9100.3090.040<0.0011,7340.1040.028<0.0011,691
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)0.0790.0520.1291,9550.0270.0540.6251,9090.1140.0660.0861,7330.0620.0680.3651,690
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)0.0000.0370.9941,955−0.0150.0380.7021,9090.0680.0460.1461,7330.0590.0490.2571,690
Blood pressure (mmHg)0.0260.0380.4841,9550.0030.0390.9441,9550.0830.0480.0821,7330.0570.0500.2481,690
Insulin (pmol/l)*−0.0490.2190.7461,277−0.4050.2220.1461,267−0.3150.2690.9271,088−0.3590.2600.9271,160
Glucose (mmol/l)−0.0020.0030.5021,790−0.0040.0030.2011,754−0.0040.0040.2921,576−0.0050.0040.1431,543
HOMA-IR−0.0040.0080.6361,275−0.0150.0080.0651,266−0.0070.0100.6581,096−0.0150.0100.1291,087
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)−0.0020.0040.5761,791−0.0070.0040.1141,7550.0090.0060.1081,5770.0060.0060.2631,544
Triglycerides (mmol/l)*0.0010.0020.5731,790−0.0010.0020.1701,7540.0000.0030.9501,576−0.0020.0030.4461,543
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)−0.0020.0020.3641,7900.0010.0020.6711,7540.0000.0020.6471,5760.0000.0020.8861,543
Fibrinogen (g/l)0.0080.0040.0391,2620.0020.0040.6641,2520.0120.0050.0111,0890.0070.0050.1121,079
Fitness (ml · kg−1 · min−1)−0.2620.036<0.0011,846−0.0770.0320.0151,801−0.1760.046<0.0011,638−0.0080.0400.8451,596
  • Model 1: maternal or paternal BMI adjusted for country, offspring sex, age, and puberty stage, and mother or father age. Model 2: model 1 + fatness of the offspring.

  • *Analysis was performed on log-transformed data, but nontransformed data are presented in the table.