Table 2

Body weight, composition, muscle strength, cardiometabolic risk factors, and glycemic control before and after 16 weeks of either an energy-restricted standard carbohydrate, low-protein, low-fat diet alone (CON) or with resistance exercise training (CON+RT), or an isocaloric higher-protein, low-fat diet alone (HP) or with resistance exercise training (HP+RT)

CONHPCON+RTHP+RTP
Time effect*Group effectDiet comparisonExercise comparison§
n16121714
Body weight (kg)
    Week 097.0 ± 10.6102.7 ± 15.4105.0 ± 15.3107.6 ± 15.5<0.0010.040.180.02
    Week 1688.4 ± 11.293.7 ± 13.894.5 ± 15.493.8 ± 13.5
    Change−8.6 ± 4.6−9.0 ± 4.8−10.5 ± 5.1−13.8 ± 6.0
BMI (kg/m2)
    Week 034.8 ± 4.935.6 ± 3.834.9 ± 4.936.6 ± 5.0<0.0010.060.170.03
    Week 1631.7 ± 5.132.5 ± 3.131.4 ± 4.331.9 ± 4.3
    Change−3.1 ± 1.6−3.2 ± 1.7−3.5 ± 1.7−4.7 ± 2.1
Total body fat mass (kg)
    Week 038.5 ± 8.040.4 ± 8.440.4 ± 10.042.9 ± 11.6<0.0010.0060.06<0.01
    Week 1632.1 ± 9.533.2 ± 6.932.3 ± 10.731.5 ± 11.6
    Change−6.5 ± 3.7−7.1 ± 4.0−8.1 ± 3.8−11.4 ± 3.9
WC (cm)
    Week 0111.3 ± 10.7114.3 ± 6.8113.7 ± 8.5116.2 ± 12.7<0.0010.0060.190.48
    Week 16103.2 ± 12.8105.4 ± 6.7102.4 ± 9.6102.5 ± 11.8
    Change−8.2 ± 4.6−8.9 ± 3.9−11.3 ± 4.6−13.7 ± 4.6
Total FFM (kg)
    Week 058.5 ± 10.762.3 ± 13.064.6 ± 12.464.7 ± 11.5<0.0010.910.800.51
    Week 1656.3 ± 10.660.4 ± 13.262.2 ± 12.062.3 ± 10.7
    Change−2.2 ± 1.9−1.9 ± 1.5−2.4 ± 2.5−2.4 ± 3.1
Single repetition bench press (kg)
    Week 060.0 ± 18.168.5 ± 27.467.1 ± 22.464.6 ± 25.5<0.01<0.0010.78<0.001
    Week 1658.1 ± 17.766.0 ± 25.176.2 ± 23.675.5 ± 28.9
    Change−1.9 ± 4.8#−2.5 ± 8.0**9.1 ± 8.510.9 ± 8.2
Single repetition lat pull down (kg)
    Week 049.8 ± 15.156.7 ± 15.455.0 ± 14.855.7 ± 18.7<0.001<0.0010.51<0.001
    Week 1650.4 ± 14.957.2 ± 15.966.2 ± 17.465.0 ± 20.7
    Change0.6 ± 4.9#0.6 ± 3.711.2 ± 6.09.3 ± 4.9
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
    Week 0137 ± 12141 ± 11137 ± 10138 ± 9<0.0010.900.860.943
    Week 16124 ± 11125 ± 11122 ± 9124 ± 9
    Change−13 ± 11−16 ± 13−16 ± 7−14 ± 9
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
    Week 079 ± 983 ± 981 ± 879 ± 8<0.0010.490.560.346
    Week 1672 ± 674 ± 974 ± 672 ± 8
    Change−7 ± 6−10 ± 6−8 ± 5−7 ± 6
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    Week 09.2 ± 2.79.5 ± 2.98.7 ± 3.28.2 ± 2.1<0.0010.900.790.483
    Week 167.1 ± 1.07.0 ± 1.06.8 ± 1.56.3 ± 1.0
    Change−2.2 ± 2.2−2.5 ± 2.7−1.9 ± 2.3−1.9 ± 1.6
Glycosylated hemoglobin (%)
    Week 07.6 ± 1.08.0 ± 1.87.3 ± 1.46.8 ± 1.0<0.0010.210.160.179
    Week 166.4 ± 0.76.3 ± 0.96.2 ± 1.05.6 ± 0.6
    Change−1.1 ± 0.6−1.8 ± 1.6−1.1 ± 0.7−1.1 ± 0.7
Serum insulin (mU/l)
    Week 015.8 ± 10.012.4 ± 8.612.3 ± 4.815.2 ± 8.3<0.0010.110.190.289
    Week 1611.8 ± 10.29.0 ± 8.08.8 ± 3.47.2 ± 3.6
    Change−4.1 ± 4.2−3.5 ± 2.8−3.4 ± 4.0−7.9 ± 8.1
Triglycerides (mmol/l)
    Week 02.3 ± 1.32.0 ± 1.11.6 ± 0.51.8 ± 0.7<0.0010.700.910.626
    Week 161.7 ± 1.51.6 ± 1.21.3 ± 0.51.2 ± 0.5
    Change−0.6 ± 1.1−0.4 ± 1.0−0.3 ± 0.5−0.5 ± 0.6
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Week 04.8 ± 1.05.0 ± 1.14.3 ± 0.94.7 ± 0.9<0.0010.890.540.628
    Week 164.1 ± 1.14.4 ± 1.43.5 ± 0.94.0 ± 0.8
    Change−0.7 ± 0.6−0.6 ± 0.8−0.8 ± 0.9−0.7 ± 0.6
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Week 01.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.30.020.860.710.863
    Week 161.1 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.2
    Change−0.0 ± 0.2−0.1 ± 0.2−0.1 ± 0.2−0.1 ± 0.2
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Week 02.7 ± 0.92.7 ± 0.92.4 ± 0.82.7 ± 0.6<0.0010.370.270.208
    Week 162.4 ± 1.02.5 ± 1.21.9 ± 0.92.4 ± 0.6
    Change−0.3 ± 0.5−0.2 ± 0.6−0.5 ± 0.6−0.3 ± 0.4
CRP (mgl/l)
    Week 03.3 ± 2.44.5 ± 2.43.0 ± 2.64.0 ± 2.5<0.0010.55>0.990.183
    Week 162.6 ± 1.93.5 ± 1.11.8 ± 1.13.0 ± 2.5
    Change−0.7 ± 1.5−0.9 ± 1.9−1.2 ± 1.9−1.0 ± 1.9
Creatinine clearance (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
    Week 0119.7 ± 22.2114.3 ± 46.9116.6 ± 24.4117.7 ± 24.9<0.0010.680.550.46
    Week 16113.1 ± 40.596.6 ± 32.1108.7 ± 22.8114.2 ± 15.8
    Change−6.6 ± 32.0−17.7 ± 37.6−7.9 ± 22.6−5.5 ± 16.4
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *Changes over time in the groups from weeks 0 to 16 (repeated-measures ANOVA).

  • †Treatment effect between groups for the change from weeks 0 to 16 (one-way ANOVA).

  • ‡Comparison of the magnitude of change between diets (CON and CON+RT vs. HP and HP+RT) (planned contrast).

  • §Comparison of the magnitude of change between exercise and nonexercise treatments (CON and HP vs. CON+RT and HP+RT) (planned contrast).

  • P ≤ 0.05;

  • P < 0.01;

  • #P < 0.001 significantly different from HP+RT.