Table 1

Adjusted regression coefficients of 25(OH) vitamin D3 (nmol/l) with parameters of insulin action and secretion

Model 1*Model 2Model 3
βSEPβSEPβSEP
Si (mU · l−1 · min−1)0.0050.0030.170.0030.0030.600.0020.0030.69
AIR (mU · l−1 · min−1)−1.470.600.041−1.260.600.078−1.200.630.079
Disposition index−3.231.440.30−3.651.450.17−3.361.530.20
HOMA-IR−0.0040.0020.016−0.0020.0020.19−0.0020.0020.24
HOMA-β (%)−0.1850.0670.007−0.1280.0660.063−0.1130.0680.070
  • *Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and geographic location.

  • †Model 2: further adjusted for BMI.

  • ‡Model 3: further adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of vitamin supplements.