Table 1

Study characteristics and main results

Author, year, countryCancer siteExclusion criterian with DM/n total (%)Age (years)Outcome (mortality rate)ResultsAdjustment variables
Koperna et al., 1997, Austria (10)ColonNo emergency surgery for colon cancer, aged ≤70 years, not treated between 1986 and 199511/99 (11%)Mean ± SD 81.5 ± 5.9Postoperative mortality (50.5%)DM: 91%; NG: 47% (P = 0.005)None
Little et al., 2002, U.S. (11)ColorectalNo hepatic resection, colorectal cancer not metastatic to the liver, not treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Hospital between 1990 and 199761/727 (8%)Median (range) 62 (23–85)30-day mortality (2.9%)DM: 8.0%; NG: 2.4% (P = 0.02)None
Tsugawa et al., 2002, Japan (12)ColonNo emergency surgery for colon cancer, aged ≤70 years, not treated between 1988 and 199710/71 (14%)Mean ± SD 75.4 ± 5.1Postoperative mortality (53.5%)DM: 80%; NG: 49% (P = 0.006)None
Davila et al., 2005, U.S. (13)ColorectalNo surgical resection of colorectal cancer within 6 months of diagnosis, previous colon cancer, ulcerative collitis, Crohn's disease, not in Veteran's Affairs database, not diagnosed between 1987 and 2000NA/32,621Mean ± SD 68 ± 930-day mortality (4.5%)HR = 1.19 (1.04–1.36)*Age, sex, race, marital status, metastatic disease, site, surgical volume, time of surgery
Jullumstrø et al., 2009, Norway (14)ColorectalNot histologically confirmed, not treated between 1980 and 200497/1,194 (8.1%)DM: median 76.2; NG: median 71.730-day mortality (5.1%)DM: 6%; NG: 5% (P = 0.61)None
Zhang et al., 1994, Japan (15)EsophagusNo esophagectomy (subtotal through right thoracotomy) between 1986 and 198942/100 (42%)Mean (range) 60.7 (42–82)Hospital complication mortality (7.0%)OR = 1.19 (P = 0.024)§Age, ECG, operation, vital capacity, T-factor, creatinine clearance, 15′ indocyanine green test
Bartels et al., 1998, Germany (16)EsophagusNo curative esophagectomy between 1982 and 1991NA/432Mean 56.730-day mortality (10.0%)OR = NA (P > 0.05)Karnofsky index, mental cooperation, vital capacity, arterial partial pressure of oxygen, aminopyrine breath test, cirrhosis, cardiac risk
Karl et al., 2000, U.S. (17)Gastroesophogeal junctionNo esophagogastrectomy between 1989 and 199915/143 (10%)Mean (range) 63.7 (33–83)30-day mortality (2.1%)DM: 13%; NG: 1% (P value NA)None
Abunasra et al., 2005, U.K. (18)Esophagus or gastroesophogeal junctionNo esophagectomy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, not treated between 1990 and 200347/773 (6%)Median 67.830-day mortality (3.5%)DM: 11%; NG: 4% (P = 0.030)None
Wright et al., 2009, U.S. (19)EsophagusNo esophagectomy, emergency operations, sites with inconsistent reporting, aged <30 years, missing data for age or discharge mortality, not treated between 2002 and 2007373/2,315 (16%)<60: 35%; 60–69: 35%; 70–80: 25%; 80+: 5%Hospital mortality and morbidity (23.9%)OR = 1.19 (P = 0.009)Age, sex, race, comorbidities, Zubrod score, ASA class, steroids, induction therapy, smoking, BMI, time trend
Nagasue et al., 1993, Japan (20)LiverNo radical hepatic resection between 1980 and 198666/229 (29%)Mean (range) 60.8 (32–79)Hospital mortality (10.5%)DM: 15.2%; NG: 11.7% (P > 0.05)None
Poon et al., 2002, Hong Kong (21)LiverNo hepatic resection between 1989 and 199962/525 (12%)Mean ± SD DM: 60.5 ± 9.7; NG: 52.4 ± 13.430-day mortality (3.0%)DM: 3.2%; NG: 3.0% (P = 0.583)None
Romano and Mark, 1992, U.S. (22)LungNo pneumonectomy, lobectomy, wedge or segmental resection; not adults; not discharged from non-federal acute care hospital; not principal or secondary diagnosis; not treated between 1983 and 1986577/12,439 (5%)Mean 6430-day mortality (5.0%)Lesser resections OR = 1.5 (1.1–2.2); Pneumonectomies OR = 1.4 (0.7–2.9)Age, sex, primary diagnosis, resection type, comorbidities, type of hospital, hospital volume
Au et al., 1994, Scotland (23)LungNo pneumonectomy, aged <70 years, classified as medically unfit, not treated between 1980 and 19875/70 (7%)Mean (range) 72.3 (70–82)30-day mortality (21.4%)NA: Fisher's exact test (P > 0.05)None
Duque et al., 1997, Spain (24)LungNo thoracotomy between 1993 and 199446/605 (8%)≤70: 75% >70: 25%30-day mortality (6.6%)OR = 1.83 (0.68–4.91)None
Dominguez-Ventura et al., 2006, U.S. (25)LungNo pulmonary resection, aged <80 years, not non-small cell, not treated between 1985 and 200428/379 (7%)Median (range) 82 (80–95)30-day mortality (6.3%)OR = 0.71 (0.09–5.49)None
Wu et al., 1995, Taiwan (26)StomachNo radical gastrectomy between 1987 and 19937/474 (1%)NAHospital mortality (3.0%)OR = NA (P > 0.05)Age, extent of gastric resection, combined organ resection, respiratory system disease
Andrén-Sandberg and Ihse, 1983, Sweden (27)PancreasNo total pancreatectomy, incomplete data, not treated between 1959 and 198212/86 (14%)Mean 61.2Hospital mortality (29.1%)DM: 58%; NG: 24% (P value NA)None
Bakkevold and Kambestad, 1993, Norway (28)PancreasNo radical or palliative surgery for pancreatic cancer, unconfirmed adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas or the papilla of Vater, not treated between 1984 and 1987NA/360Mean 6730-day mortality (13.1%)Radical pancreatectomy OR = NA (P > 0.05); Palliative surgery OR = 0.20 (0.06–0.64)¶Radical pancreatectomy: Karnofsky's index— pallative surgery: liver metastasis, Karnofsky's index
Wilt et al., 1999, U.S. (29)ProstateNo radical prostatectomy at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, not aged 45–84 years, not treated between 1986 and 19961,352/13,398 (10%)Mean ± SD 65.0 ± 5.430-day mortality (0.73%)OR = 1.87 (1.11–3.15)Age, race, alcohol abuse, comorbidities, region
  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiology; DM, diabetes; NA, not available; NG, normoglycemic.

  • *95% CI.

  • †Study included multivariate model in which diabetes was not included.

  • ‡Used hospital mortality plus morbidity as outcome.

  • §Used four-level definition of diabetes based on oral glucose tolerance test results. ¶Diabetes population as reference.