Table 1

All participants: characteristics, cardiovascular risk parameters, medication use, and monthly cost at baseline and 1 year

BaselineP valueYear 1P value
ILIDSEILIDSE
n2,4962,5020.932,1822,1760.93
Women (%)1,480 (59)1,491 (60)0.841,301 (60)1,288 (59)0.80
Age at randomization (years)59 ± 759 ± 70.13
Duration of diabetes (years)7 ± 77 ± 60.62
BMI (kg/m2)35.9 ± 6.036.0 ± 5.80.4232.8 ± 6.135.7 ± 5.9<0.0001
Fitness (METS)5.2 ± 1.55.1 ± 1.50.076.2 ± 25.4 ± 1.6<0.0001
Diabetes
    A1C (%)7.3 ± 1.17.3 ± 1.20.076.6 ± 1.07.1 ± 1.2<0.0001
    Number of prescribed medications1.5 ± 0.91.5 ± 0.90.531.2 ± 0.91.6 ± 0.9<0.0001
    Monthly cost ($)87 (55)88 (55)0.7472 (33)98 (55)<0.0001
Hypertension
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128 ± 17130 ± 170.011122 ± 17126 ± 17<0.0001
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)70 ± 970 ± 100.1067 ± 968 ± 10<0.0001
    Number of prescribed medications1.3 ± 1.11.3 ± 1.10.911.3 ± 1.11.4 ± 1.10.19
    Monthly cost ($)36 (23)37 (23)0.5535 (28)38 (65)0.11
Hyperlipidemia
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)112 ± 32112 ± 320.91107 ± 32106 ± 320.54
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)43 ± 1243 ± 120.9947 ± 1345 ± 12<0.0001
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)182 ± 116180 ± 1180.59152 ± 93166 ± 95<0.0001
    Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)148 ± 38147 ± 370.53137 ± 37139 ± 360.06
    Number of prescribed medications0.5 ± 0.60.5 ± 0.60.880.5 ± 0.60.6 ± 0.60.003
    Monthly cost ($)32 (0)32 (0)0.9636 (24)38 (24)0.008
Total medications
    Number of prescribed medications3.3 ± 1.83.3 ± 1.80.723.1 ± 1.83.6 ± 1.8<0.0001
    Monthly cost ($)155 (129)157 (134)0.44143 (120)173 (152)<0.0001
  • Data are mean ± SD or frequency (%) and monthly cost data are mean (median), unless otherwise specified. Fitness is exercise level attained at >80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate.