Table 1

Standardized regression coefficients (B) for distress and clinical depression on A1C and self-care behavior

A1CDietPhysical activityMedication adherence
Step 1
    Age (years)−0.240.13−0.010.21
    Sex (0 = male; 1 = female)0.030.03−0.19−0.07
    Ethnicity (0 = nonwhite; 1 = white)0.12−0.04−0.002−0.08
    Education (years)−0.03−0.010.08−0.03
    Insulin (0 = no; 1 = yes)0.27−0.03−0.03−0.006
Step 2Binary PHQ8Continuous PHQ8Binary PHQ8Continuous PHQ8Binary PHQ8Continuous PHQ8Binary PHQ8Continuous PHQ8
    DDS0.310.30−0.38−0.34−0.13−0.13−0.16−0.11*
    PHQ8−0.08−0.03−0.11−0.19−0.030.020.12−0.21
  • A1C, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence are dependent variables in separate hierarchical multiple regression equations. Each was run twice: PHQ8 was entered into Step 2 as either a binary or a continuous variable. Step 1 data are the same in both analyses with the same dependent variable.

  • *P = 0.05;

  • P = 0.01;

  • P = 0.00.