Table 1

Characteristics across categories of periodontal disease (%AL ≥5 mm), adjusted for age and sex: SHIP, 1997–2006

ALI (0 ± 0%)*ALII (4 ± 2%)*ALIII (18 ± 7%)*ALIV (62 ± 21%)*Edentulous
n1,122489463479241
Sociodemographic
    Age38 ± 0.347 ± 0.553 ± 0.559 ± 0.568 ± 0.7
    Female sex6150514048
    <9 years education2625344453
    9–10 years education4953514541
    >10 years education252215116
Lifestyle and behavioral
    Former smokers3836292928
    Current smokers1324314242
    Pack-years smoking5 ± 0.47 ± 0.69 ± 0.613 ± 0.613.0 ± 0.9
    Physical activity (METs/day)1,900 ± 281,950 ± 371,907 ± 381,893 ± 401,797 ± 59
    Region (urban vs. rural)6363625450
Medical
    BMI (kg/m2)26.7 ± 0.1526.8 ± 0.1927.2 ± 0.2027.3 ± 0.2127.1 ± 0.31
    WHR0.85 ± 0.0020.86 ± 0.0030.87 ± 0.0030.87 ± 0.0030.86 ± 0.004
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133 ± 0.6135 ± 0.8134 ± 0.8135 ± 0.9138 ± 1.3
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)83 ± 0.485 ± 0.585 ± 0.584 ± 0.582 ± 0.8
    A1C (%)5.20 ± 0.025.23 ± 0.025.28 ± 0.025.25 ± 0.035.31 ± 0.04
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)*1.65 ± 0.051.83 ± 0.061.95 ± 0.061.91 ± 0.071.76 ± 0.10
    WBC count6.2 ± 0.076.6 ± 0.097.0 ± 0.096.9 ± 0.096.9 ± 0.14
    Fibrinogen (g/l)2.84 ± 0.022.87 ± 0.033.00 ± 0.033.07 ± 0.033.13 ± 0.05
    hs-CRP (mg/l)2.37 ± 0.152.13 ± 0.202.47 ± 0.213.19 ± 0.213.00 ± 0.31
    Corticosteroid use22222
    Family history of diabetes2634333327
Dental
    Mean attachment loss (mm)1.4 ± 0.032.1 ± 0.043.0 ± 0.045.0 ± 0.04NA
    Mean PPD (mm)2.1 ± 0.022.3 ± 0.022.7 ± 0.033.3 ± 0.03NA
    Decayed, filled teeth (n)6.1 ± 0.086.2 ± 0.115.6 ± 0.124.1 ± 0.12§
    Decayed, filled surfaces (n)17.3 ± 0.316.6 ± 0.414.7 ± 0.410.6 ± 0.5
    Tooth count22.6 ± 0.223.5 ± 0.221.5 ± 0.216.4 ± 0.2
  • Data are means ± SEM or %.

  • *Unadjusted category-specific value for attachment loss ≥ 5 mm.

  • P < 0.01.

  • P < 0.05.

  • §Edentulous individuals were excluded from specified age- and sex-adjusted regressions because the value of these dependent variables are perfectly correlated with edentulism. NA, not available.