Table 1

Demographic parameters and hormone concentrations of lean (BMI <25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) nondiabetic and diabetic men

AllNondiabeticDiabeticLeanOverweightObese
NondiabeticDiabeticNondiabeticDiabeticNondiabeticDiabetic
n1,8491,45139827536687135489227
Age (years)60.9 ± 10.260.2 ± 0.363.6 ± 9.862.8 ± 11.5*70.7 ± 10.3*b60.9 ± 10.1*65.9 ± 9.6*b57.9 ± 9.161.0 ± 8.9b
BMI (kg/m2)29.7 ± 5.629.0 ± 5.232.3 ± 6.423.0 ± 3.223.2 ± 3.227.4 ± 3.227.7 ± 3.234.6 ± 3.236.4 ± 3.2b
Men with subnormal FT (%)35334526*4429*444050
FT (pg/ml)58.1 ± 21.258.9 ± 19.555.2 ± 20.062.0 ± 19.4*58.8 ± 19.5*60.9 ± 19.3*56.9 ± 19.5*55.5 ± 19.750.7 ± 19.4
FT (nmol/l)0.202 ± 0.0740.205 ± 0.0680.192 ± 0.0690.215 ± 0.067*0.204 ± 0.068*0.211 ± 0.067*0.198 ± 0.068*0.193 ± 0.0680.176 ± 0.067a
Total T (ng/dl)368.5 ± 145.3373.4 ± 140.5351.5 ± 144.2389.5 ± 167.3*369.7 ± 149.4*388.3 ± 138.0*356.4 ± 141.5*350.2 ± 132.7330.4 ± 135.6 a
Total T (nmol/l)12.8 ± 5.013.0 ± 4.912.2 ± 5.013.5 ± 5.8*12.8 ± 5.2*13.5 ± 4.8*12.4 ± 4.9*12.2 ± 4.611.5 ± 4.7
BT (ng/dl)101.0 ± 49.2101.8 ± 44.897.5 ± 46.0106.7 ± 44.1*96.6 ± 44.5106.0 ± 44.2*101.3 ± 44.8*95.6 ± 45.189.9 ± 44.4
BT (nmol/l)3.5 ± 1.73.5 ± 1.63.4 ± 1.63.7 ± 1.5*3.4 ± 1.53.7 ± 1.5*3.5 ± 1.6*3.3 ± 1.63.1 ± 1.5
SHBG (nmol/l)58.3 ± 29.958.1 ± 29.159.5 ± 32.771.4 ± 27.6*76.0 ± 27.8*58.8 ± 27.5*57.0 ± 27.851.8 ± 27.953.6 ± 27.5
  • Data are means ± SD. Testosterone concentrations and prevalence of subnormal free testosterone in columns for diabetic and nondiabetic men were adjusted to the mean age (60.9 years), BMI (29.7 kg/m2), and SHBG concentration (58.4 nmol/l) of the whole population. Testosterone concentrations and prevalence of subnormal free testosterone in the lean, overweight, and obese columns were adjusted only for age and SHBG. Normal ranges: total testosterone (T) (300–1,000 ng/dl), free testosterone (FT) (50–280 pg/ml), bioavailable testosterone (BT) (90–285 ng/dl), and SHBG (20–60 nmol/l). To convert into nanomoles per liter, total testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were divided by 28.8 and free testosterone by 288.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. obese men in the same group (diabetic or nondiabetic).

  • P < 0.05 vs. nondiabetic men.

  • P < 0.001 vs. nondiabetic men.