Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as the association [odds ratio (95% CI)] between the studied parameters with foot ulceration

Without foot ulcerationWith foot ulcerationP
n258121
Age (years)60.0 ± 11.763.2 ± 10.20.86
Male/female [n (%)]130 (50.4)/128 (49.6)84 (69.4)/37 (30.6)0.001
Type 1/type 2 diabetes [n (%)]15 (5.8)/243 (94.2)8 (6.6)/113 (93.4)0.46
Duration of diabetes (years) [median value (IQR)]10.0 (5.0–16.0)18.0 (10.0–25.0)<0.001
A1C (%)7.4 ± 1.69.2 ± 2.4<0.001
VPT (V)21.5 ± 11.637.4 ± 12.2<0.001
VPT ≥25 V [n (%)]85 (32.9)101 (83.5)<0.001
NSS [median value (IQR)]4.5 (0.0–6.0)6.0 (4.0–7.0)<0.001
NDS [median value (IQR)]2.0 (0.0–5.0)7.0 (6.0–10.0)<0.001
NDS ≥6 [n (%)]62 (24.0)92 (76.0)<0.001
Monofilament insensation [n (%)]36 (14.0)70 (57.9)<0.001
Neuropathy [n (%)]114 (44.2)114 (94.2)<0.001
Ankle-brachial pressure index1.00 ± 0.220.98 ± 0.220.050
Peripheral artery disease [n (%)]42 (16.3)31 (25.6)0.09
Abnormal Neuropad result [n (%)]135 (52.3)115 (95.0)<0.001
Univariate analysisOR95% CI
    Age (1 year)1.000.98–1.020.56
    Sex (male vs. female)1.831.14–2.950.01
    Duration of diabetes (1 year)1.081.05–1.11<0.001
    A1C (1%)1.321.18–1.740.002
    NSS (1 unit)1.241.13–1.36<0.001
    NDS (1 unit)1.611.45–1.79<0.001
    NDS ≥6 vs. <610.76.25–18.40<0.001
    VPT (1 V)1.101.08–1.13<0.001
    VPT ≥25 vs. <25 V12.236.20–22.68<0.001
    Monofilament result (insensation vs. sensation)8.334.18–16.59<0.001
    Neuropad result (abnormal vs. normal)17.37.36–40.8<0.001
    Peripheral artery disease (yes vs. no)1.841.07–3.100.02
Multivariate analysis*
    Model 1
        NDS ≥6 vs. <66.703.31–13.35<0.001
    Model 2
        VPT ≥25 vs. <25 V11.916.03–21.86<0.001
    Model 3
        Monofilament result (insensation vs. sensation)6.403.09–13.28<0.001
    Model 4
        Neuropad result (abnormal vs. normal)16.286.27–38.24<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. IQR, interquartile range. Sex, NDS ≥6 vs. <6, VPT ≥25 vs. <25 V, monofilament result (insensation vs. sensation), Neuropad result (abnormal vs. normal), and peripheral artery disease (yes vs. no) were analyzed as categorical variables; all the other variables were analyzed as continuous variables in both univariate and multivariate analysis.

  • *Each one of the models 1–4 were adjusted in addition for age, sex, duration of diabetes, A1C, NSS, and peripheral artery disease status.