Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients without any retinopathy compared with patients with nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy

No retinopathyNonproliferative retinopathyProliferative retinopathyAll patients
n2584923671,117
Duration of diabetes (years)13.7 (12.6–14.7)*24.9 (24.1–25.8)*33.1 (32.2–34.0)*25.0 (24.4–25.7)
Age at onset (years)17.2 (16.2–18.3)*14.0 (13.2–14.8)*10.6 (9.9–11.3)*13.7 (13.1–14.1)
A1C (%)8.1 (7.9–8.3)†8.5 (8.3–8.6)*8.7 (8.5–8.8)*8.4 (8.4–8.5)
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)93.7 (92.4–94.9)*96.6 (95.7–97.5)*102.3 (101.1–103.5)*97.8 (97.2–98.5)
BMI (kg/m2)24.3 (23.9–24.7)25.2 (24.9–25.5)*25.5 (25.1–25.9)*25.1 (24.8–25.3)
Mortality5 (1.9)*19 (3.9)*75 (20.4)*99 (8.9)
  • Data are means (95% CI) or n (%). One-way ANOVA, adjusted for multiple comparisons (Sidak). Differences in proportions were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test. *Significant difference between all three groups (P _ 0.05). †Significant difference between two groups.