Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of ethnic groups

Indian AsiansWhite EuropeansP value*
n180180
Sex (male/female)95/8596/840.9
Age (years)57.4 ± 9.959.1 ± 9.70.09
Duration diabetes (years)9.4 ± 7.57.0 ± 5.70.001
Height (m)1.61 ± 9.31.65 ± 9.8<0.0001
Weight (kg)77.2 ± 14.893.3 ± 19.3<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)29.7 ± 5.534.1 ± 6.5<0.0001
Waist (cm)
    Men96.7 ± 13.1106.6 ± 12.7<0.0001
    Women97.1 ± 12.8102.7 ± 15.10.01
Hips (cm)
    Men99.6 ± 8.1105.4 ± 8.7<0.0001
    Women103.1 ± 11.3111.0 ± 15.6<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio
    Men0.97 ± 0.091.01 ± 0.07<0.0001
    Women0.94 ± 0.080.92 ± 0.080.2
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)7.7 ± 2.28.0 ± 2.30.2
A1C (%)8.1 ± 1.67.9 ± 1.70.3
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3 ± 1.04.7 ± 1.10.004
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.40.7
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l)1.4 (1.1, 1.9)1.7 (1.2, 2.4)0.005
Insulin (mU/l)17.1 (9.6, 27.0.1)18.2 (11.5, 28.6)0.44
γ-Glutamyltransferase (U/l)35.7 ± 34.458.7 ± 56.0<0.0001
Creatinine (μmol/l)87.2 ± 31.285.9 ± 27.00.7
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio1.5 (0.7, 2.5)1.4 (0.6, 3.0)0.6
Retinopathy (%)14120.6
Nephropathy (%)640.3
Hypertension (%)54740.0002
Myocardial infarction (%)17130.3
Angina (%)23170.2
Coronary artery bypass graft (%)1490.1
Resting heart rate (bpm)76 ± 1475 ± 130.8
Ankle systolic blood pressure (mmHg)136 ± 22142 ± 310.06
Brachial systolic blood pressure (mmHg)123 ± 17127 ± 170.02
ABPI <0.85 (%)4.09.10.05
Lower limb vascular intervention (%)390.03
Claudication (%)7150.01
TCpO2 (mmHg)61 ± 1256 ± 13<0.0001
Pack-years smoked (%)<0.0001
    None7436
    ≤201422
    >201142
Drink alcohol ≥ once a week (%)542<0.0001
Insulin (%)19230.4
Oral antidiabetic drugs (%)87760.007
Antihypertensive drugs (%)61770.001
Lipid-lowering drugs (%)57710.006
Other coronary heart disease drugs (%)15180.4
  • Data are % prevalence, means ± SD, or geometric means (25th, 75th percentiles).

  • *P value for ethnic difference.