Table 1

Characteristics of the 1,439 DCCT/EDIC participants within each AER category (based on the history of AER values) at the last visit for subjects with no sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and at the initial abnormal eGFR visit for subjects with sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2

Clinical characteristicsNo sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 1,350)Sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 89)
AER ≤30AER >30–300AER >300TotalTotalAER ≤30AER >30–300AER >300
n6755661091,35089211454
Primary cohort (%)594339*5052677939*
Intensive therapy (%)545028*5038574330
Female (%)435334*4755816443*
DCCT baseline
    Age (years)28 ± 726 ± 725 ± 7*27 ± 728 ± 830 ± 733 ± 526 ± 7*
    Diabetes duration (years)5.3 ± 4.16.4 ± 4.36.2 ± 3.9*5.8 ± 4.25.8 ± 3.84.0 ± 3.04.3 ± 3.86.9 ± 3.8*
    BMI (kg/m2)23 ± 323 ± 324 ± 323 ± 324 ± 323 ± 325 ± 324 ± 3
    MAP (mmHg)87 ± 986 ± 887 ± 986 ± 987 ± 884 ± 986 ± 988 ± 7
    Hypertension (%)3230373130191439
    AER (mg/24 h) [median (Q1, Q3)]9 (6, 13)14 (9, 27)16 (9, 29)*12 (7, 19)12 (7, 19)7 (4, 10)12 (8, 19)14 (7, 22)*
    Clinical neuropathy (%)§66116105713
    HDL (mg/dl)51 ± 1350 ± 1248 ± 13*51 ± 1250 ± 1355 ± 1450 ± 1349 ± 13
    LDL (mg/dl)110 ± 30109 ± 29111 ± 28109 ± 29114 ± 26108 ± 30118 ± 25116 ± 25
    Triglyceride (mg/dl)76 ± 4283 ± 4797 ± 72*80 ± 4894 ± 4470 ± 2798 ± 38102 ± 48*
    eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)108 ± 23118 ± 28121 ± 28*113 ± 26108 ± 3385 ± 2094 ± 23121 ± 33*
    Diabetes duration at first sustained24.025.925.724.921.020.019.521.8
    eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or last GFR visit (years)(5.7)(5.6)(5.0)*(5.7)(5.4)(5.6)(4.8)(5.4)
Take ACE inhibitors in EDIC study (%)445381*5182439394*
Take ARBs at EDIC year 13/14 (%)6.48.012.87.623.614.021.427.8
DCCT mean A1C7.8 ± 18.3 ± 19.4 ± 1*8.1 ± 19.3 ± 27.8 ± 18.9 ± 210.0 ± 1*
EDIC mean A1C up to year 13/147.7 ± 18.2 ± 18.9 ± 1*8.0 ± 18.7 ± 17.7 ± 18.7 ± 19.1 ± 1*
DCCT/EDIC follow-up (years)19.0 ± 419.6 ± 319.8 ± 3*19.3 ± 419.7 ± 319.7 ± 219.4 ± 219.8 ± 3
  • Data are means ± SD for quantitative variables unless noted otherwise. No sustained eGFR includes subjects with all eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and subjects with a history of single eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, but no sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2.

  • *P < 0.05 from a multiple-group comparison among the three AER groups within the no sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 group, respectively, based on a 2 df Kruskal-Wallis test for quantitative variables and a χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • P < 0.05 from a between-group comparison between the no sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 group as a whole, based on Wilcoxon rank-sum test for quantitative variables and a χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • ‡Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mmHg.

  • §Clinical neuropathy: a definite diagnosis of peripheral diabetic neuropathy by clinical examination based on the presence of at least two of the following: physical symptoms, abnormalities on sensory examination, and absent or decreased deep-tendon reflexes.

  • ‖Diabetes duration up to the time of first reported sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or up to the last GFR visit for subjects with no sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. No statistical test was conducted comparing subjects with no sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 versus sustained eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 groups as a whole.

  • ¶Use of ARBs was not collected before EDIC year 13/14. ACE inhibitor use was proscribed during the DCCT.