Table 1

Demographic characteristics and cardiometabolic status of the offspring of mothers with NGT and GD after 15 years of follow-up

NGTGDP
n8742
Baseline characteristics at index pregnancy
    Birth weight (g)3,273 (454)3,248 (351)0.76
At 15 years of age
    Maternal glycemic status at follow-up
    AGT18 (20.7%)21 (50.0%)0.001
    DM5 (5.7%)10 (23.8%)0.003
Paternal history of DM4 (4.6%)1 (2.4%)0.54
Mean age14.8 (0.8)15.0 (0.8)0.25
Male:Female46:41 (53:47)19:23 (47:53)0.42
Tanner stage (interquartile range)4 (3–4)4 (3–4)0.45
Body weight (kg)55.7 (12.5)56.8 (12.0)0.65
Average weight gain since 8-year assessment (kg/year)3.91 (1.22)4.16 (1.32)0.30
Average weight gain since birth (kg/year)3.55 (0.81)3.59 (0.86)0.80
Body height (cm)163.3 (7.6)162.7 (8.6)0.68
Waist circumference (cm)73.3 (10.1)73.8 (9.9)0.81
Hip circumference (cm)93.7 (8.2)95.1 (7.4)0.35
Waist-to-hip ratio0.78 (0.05)0.77 (0.06)0.55
Percentage of body fat (%)22.5 (7.4)24.4 (7.2)0.17
BMI (kg/m2)20.8 (3.8)21.4 (3.7)0.40
Systolic BP (mmHg)111 (10)113 (10)0.46
Diastolic BP (mmHg)66 (8)68 (7)0.46
Fasting PG (mmol/l)4.7 (0.3)4.6 (0.3)0.51
Second hour PG (mmol/l)5.6 (1.4)6.0 (1.5)0.16
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4 (0.3)1.4 (0.2)0.95
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.0 (0.6)2.1 (0.5)0.34
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)3.9 (0.6)3.9 (0.6)0.84
Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.0 (0.4)0.9 (0.5)0.48
Children's glycemic status
    IFG1 (1.1%)00.77*
    IGT8 (9.2%)4 (9.8%)0.77*
    DM01 (2.4%)0.77*
HDL-C <1.03 mmol/l3 (3.4%)2 (4.8%)0.72
Triglyceride ≥1.7 mmol/l6 (6.9%)4 (9.5%)0.60
Fasting PG ≥5.6 mmol/l or IGT or DM9 (10.3%)5 (11.9%)0.79
Waist circumference ≥90th percentile29 (33.3%)17 (40.5%)0.43
BP ≥ 90th percentile8 (9.2)4 (9.5)0.95
Metabolic syndrome3 (3.4%)3 (7.1%)0.35
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *P value calculated based on the rate of AGT (include IFG, IGT, or DM).

  • †According to the age- and sex-specific reference range in the Hong Kong Chinese population. PG, plasma glucose.