Table 1

Distribution of risk factors among Europeans, Chinese, South Asians, and Aboriginal people living in Canada

EuropeanChineseSouth AsianAboriginalOverall P value*
n312303317244
Age (years)51.3 ± 0.647.8 ± 0.649.4 ± 0.652.9 ± 0.6<0.0011–6
Female sex160 (51.3)150 (49.5)142 (44.8)141 (57.8)0.169
Current smoker52 (16.7)17 (5.6)32 (10.1)97 (39.8)<0.051–6
BMI (kg/m2)27.5 ± 0.323.8 ± 0.326.1 ± 0.331.9 ± 0.3<0.0011–6
WHR0.87 ± 0.0040.86 ± 0.0040.88 ± 0.0040.93 ± 0.004<0.0011–6
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.17 ± 0.053.14 ± 0.053.29 ± 0.043.16 ± 0.050.0854
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.19 ± 0.021.19 ± 0.021.05 ± 0.021.07 ± 0.02<0.0012–5
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.39 ± 0.071.46 ± 0.081.70 ± 0.071.68 ± 0.07<0.0012–5
C-reactive protein (mg/l)1.25 ± 0.170.70 ± 0.141.79 ± 0.203.32 ± 0.28<0.0011–6
Free fatty acids (mEq/ml)512 ± 13523 ± 13535 ± 13544 ± 140.35
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.10 ± 0.065.18 ± 0.065.45 ± 0.065.56 ± 0.07<0.0012–5
2-h glucose (mmol/l)6.08 ± 0.176.79 ± 0.177.14 ± 0.166.41 ± 0.19<0.0011,2,6
A1C (%)5.32 ± 0.045.59 ± 0.045.76 ± 0.045.95 ± 0.05<0.0011–6
Impaired fasting glucose8 (2.6)1 (0.3)7 (2.2)11 (4.5)0.16
Impaired glucose tolerance35 (11.2)46 (15.2)56 (17.7)30 (12.3)0.11
Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes16 ± 5.112 ± 4.027 ± 8.521 ± 8.70.02
HOMA-IR2.12 ± 0.142.23 ± 0.113.03 ± 0.234.85 ± 0.35<0.0012–6
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)119 ± 0.9119 ± 0.9120 ± 0.9118 ± 1.00.625
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)73 ± 0.675 ± 0.676 ± 0.667 ± 0.6<0.0011–3,5,6
Energy intake (kcal)1,994 ± 411,850 ± 441,754 ± 422,218 ± 49<0.0011–3,5,6
High physical activity90 ± 31.644 ± 16.743 ± 15.541 ± 22.9<0.0011,2,5,6
Physical activity (h/week)8.05 ± 0.097.11 ± 0.097.25 ± 0.097.74 ± 0.10<0.0011–3,5,6
Adiponectin (μg/ml)§
    Men10.89 ± 0.867.53 ± 0.888.26 ± 0.459.63 ± 0.39<0.00011,2,5,6
    Women15.01 ± 1.1310.28 ± 0.7111.02 ± 0.7613.15 ± 0.63<0.00011–3,5,6
    Total12.96 ± 0.738.52 ± 0.579.35 ± 0.4311.87 ± 0.41<0.00011,2,4–6
Leptin (ng/ml)
    Men5.93 ± 0.865.37 ± 0.887.24 ± 0.605.37 ± 1.39<0.00012,4,6
    Women13.60 ± 1.3614.01 ± 1.2122.87 ± 1.5416.95 ± 2.07<0.00012–6
    Total9.21 ± 0.858.25 ± 0.7711.82 ± 0.9411.13 ± 1.21<0.00012–5
  • Data are means ± SEM or n (%).

  • *P values: 1P < 0.05, European vs. Chinese; 2P < 0.05, European vs. South Asian; 3P < 0.05, European vs. Aboriginal people; 4P < 0.05, Chinese vs. South Asian; 5P < 0.05, Chinese vs. Aboriginal people; 6P < 0.05, South Asian vs. Aboriginal people.

  • †Means are adjusted for age and sex.

  • ‡New clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes as determined by 2-h oral glucose tolerance test.

  • §Geometric means for adiponectin are adjusted for age and waist circumference (because adiponectin is highly correlated with waist girth).

  • ‖Geometric means for leptin are adjusted for age and BMI (because leptin is highly correlated with BMI).