Table 1

Baseline predictors of psychosocial, functional, and health outcome for type 1 diabetes group: outcomes

OutcomesInternalizing problems at follow-up (regression coefficient)Externalizing problems at follow-up (regression coefficient)Total problems at follow-up (regression coefficient)
Explanatory variablesEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIP
CBCL Total problems0.330.13–0.530.0020.400.19–0.60<0.0010.450.24–0.66<0.001
Gender2.77−1.55 to 7.100.2−0.87−5.26 to 3.520.71.21−3.32 to 5.740.6
SES1.44−0.44 to 3.310.10.19−1.71 to 2.090.80.82−1.14 to 2.780.4
    Overall modelF (3, 75) = 6.2, P = 0.001, R2 = 16.6F (3, 75) = 5.5, P = 0.002, R2 = 14.8F (3, 75) = 7.5, P = <0.001, R2 = 20.0
CBCL Internalizing0.13−0.12 to 0.380.3−0.05−0.30 to 0.190.70.04−0.22 to 0.300.8
CBCL Externalizing0.21−0.04 to 0.460.10.480.23–0.73<0.0010.420.16–0.690.002
Gender2.29−2.24 to 6.820.3−2.31−6.74 to 2.110.30.02−4.69 to 4.73>0.9
SES1.49−0.44 to 3.420.10.05−1.84 to 1.94>0.90.78−1.23 to 2.790.4
    Overall modelF (4, 74) = 3.8, P = 0.008, R2 = 12.4F (4, 74) = 5.0, P = 0.001, R2 = 16.9F (4, 74) = 5.0, P = 0.001, R2 = 16.9
EAS shyness0.72−1.23 to 2.660.5−0.40−2.12 to 1.330.70.04−1.90 to 1.97>0.9
EAS emotionality0.04−0.82 to 0.90>0.90.780.02–1.550.050.50−0.36 to 1.360.3
EAS sociability−0.14−1.57 to 1.280.8−0.37−1.63 to 0.890.6−0.22−1.63 to 1.200.8
EAS activity1.26−0.10 to 2.620.071.550.35–2.760.011.660.31–3.020.02
Gender4.740.29–9.190.040.55−3.41 to 4.510.83.44−1.00 to 7.870.1
    Overall modelF (5, 92) = 1.4, P = 0.2, R2 = 2.2F (5, 92) = 2.4, P = 0.05, R2 = 6.5F (5, 92) = 1.9, P = 0.1, R2 = 4.3
FACES cohesion−1.57−2.70 to −0.440.007−0.66−1.75 to 0.440.2−1.36−2.54 to −0.190.02
FACES adaptability0.00−1.19 to 1.19>0.9−0.32−1.47 to 0.830.60.18−1.06 to 1.410.8
Gender3.01−1.20 to 7.220.2−0.83−4.92 to 3.250.71.37−3.01 to 5.760.5
SES0.83−1.09 to 2.740.40.05−1.81 to 1.91>0.90.68−1.31 to 2.680.5
    Overall modelF (4, 91) = 3.5, P = 0.01, R2 = 9.6F (4, 91) = 0.6, P = 0.7, R2 = −1.6F (4, 91) = 2.0, P = 0.1, R2 = 4.1
Outcomes at follow-upMental health referral (OR)School completion (OR)Full-time study/work (OR)Specialist diabetes care (OR)
Explanatory variablesEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIP
CBCL Total problems1.051.00–1.090.051.000.95–1.05>0.91.050.98–1.110.21.040.99–1.090.1
Gender1.350.54–3.420.50.480.16–1.440.20.910.26–3.190.90.470.17–1.290.1
SES1.010.68–1.50>0.92.021.20–3.390.0081.150.67–1.990.60.990.65–1.51>0.9
    Overall modelχ2 = 4.9, df = 3, P = 0.2χ2 = 10.1, df = 3, P = 0.02χ2 = 2.9, df = 3, P = 0.4χ2 = 4.3, df = 3, P = 0.2
CBCL Internalizing1.020.96–1.070.60.980.92–1.040.51.020.95–1.090.71.000.95–1.06>0.9
CBCL Externalizing1.030.98–1.090.21.020.96–1.080.61.030.96–1.100.51.040.99–1.110.1
Gender1.240.48–3.210.70.440.14–1.380.20.870.24–3.180.80.410.14–1.180.1
SES1.000.67–1.50>0.91.981.17–3.340.011.170.67–2.020.60.950.62–1.470.8
    Overall modelχ2 = 4.4, df = 4, P = 0.4χ2 = 10.7, df = 4, P = 0.03χ2 = 2.1, df = 4, P = 0.7χ2 = 5.1, df = 4, P = 0.3
EAS shyness0.930.64–1.350.70.810.47–1.410.51.170.68–1.980.61.040.62–1.730.9
EAS emotionality1.040.89–1.230.60.940.77–1.160.61.050.82–1.340.71.140.93–1.390.2
EAS sociability0.780.59–1.040.090.930.64–1.350.71.030.69–1.540.90.810.57–1.160.2
EAS activity1.160.88–1.530.31.380.93–2.040.10.830.57–1.210.31.090.77–1.560.6
Gender1.050.45–2.45>0.90.510.17–1.510.20.840.24–2.890.80.300.10–0.900.03
    Overall modelχ2 = 3.4, df = 5, P = 0.6χ2 = 6.7, df = 5, P = 0.2χ2 = 1.4, df = 5, P = >0.9χ2 = 7.0, df = 5, P = 0.2
FACES cohesion0.880.70–1.110.30.900.66–1.250.50.940.70–1.250.70.860.64–1.160.3
FACES adaptability1.250.97–1.600.080.860.62–1.180.40.830.59–1.180.31.040.78–1.400.8
Gender1.210.51–2.850.70.270.08–0.940.040.930.27–3.23>0.90.340.12–1.010.05
SES1.150.78–1.690.51.931.07–3.500.031.120.62–2.030.71.100.68–1.770.7
    Overall modelχ2 = 4.3, df = 4, P = 0.4χ2 = 15.4, df = 4, P = 0.004χ2 = 2.4, df = 4, P = 0.7χ2 = 5.0, df = 4, P = 0.3
OutcomesSeizure at follow-up (OR)Metabolic control at follow-up (regression coefficient)
Explanatory variablesEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIP
CBCL Total problems1.020.98–1.060.40.49−0.05–1.030.08
Gender0.740.30–1.790.59.91−1.68–21.490.09
SES0.980.67–1.44>0.90.27−4.67–5.21>0.9
    Overall modelχ2 = 1.3, df = 3, P = 0.7F (3, 77) = 2.2, P = 0.09, R2 = 4.3
CBCL Internalizing0.960.91–1.010.10.20−0.46–0.860.5
CBCL Externalizing1.051.00–1.110.070.35−0.34–1.040.3
Gender0.620.25–1.580.39.12−2.74–20.990.1
SES0.970.66–1.420.90.23−4.79–5.24>0.9
    Overall modelχ2 = 4.4, df = 4, P = 0.4F (4, 76) = 1.6, P = 0.2, R2 = 2.7
EAS shyness0.820.56–1.190.3−2.04−6.76–2.690.4
EAS emotionality1.140.96–1.350.11.40−0.70–3.510.2
EAS sociability0.910.69–1.200.5−0.29−3.78–3.200.9
EAS activity1.270.97–1.670.08−2.25−5.58–1.080.2
Gender0.730.32–1.690.56.70−4.01–17.410.2
    Overall modelχ2 = 7.2, df = 5, P = 0.2F (5, 96) = 1.4, P = 0.2, R2 = 1.8
FACES cohesion1.000.80–1.24>0.9−0.07−2.89–2.74>0.9
FACES adaptability0.830.65–1.050.12.71−0.25–5.660.07
Gender0.590.26–1.350.212.752.21–23.280.02
SES0.870.60–1.270.54.860.07–9.650.05
    Overall modelχ2 = 4.0, df = 4, P = 0.4F (4, 95) = 2.7, P = 0.04, R2 = 6.3
  • R2 value is the adjusted R2. Gender was coded as male = 0, female = 1. Hence in the logistic regression models, males are the baseline category. A higher score on this measure represents lower SES. For analysis, EAS scores were divided by 2, and FACES scores were divided by 3 to aid meaningful interpretation of estimates.