Table 1

Characteristics of study participants

CitationSample sizeLength of F/U (years)Age at baseline (years) (means ± SD)Sex (% female)Race/ethnicityBaseline A1C (%) (means ± SD)Baseline FPG (mmol/l) (means ± SD)Definition of incident diabetesInclusion criteria and sampling method
Droumaguet 20062,820647.3 (9.9)51.0French5.4 (0.4)5.4 (0.5)FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or treatment by oral agents or insulinVolunteers identified as nondiabetes or FPG < 7.0 mmol/l at baseline; persons with self-reported diabetes and FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Edelman 20041,253355.0 (6.0)6.069% white5.6 (0.7)NRFPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or A1C ≥ 7.0% or self-reportA convenience sample of patients without diabetes who visited clinics; patients with A1C ≥ 7.0% or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
29% black
2% other
Hamilton 200727660.2 (14.7)59.3NR5.6 (0.5)NRNRAll patients undergoing elective pancreatic surgery with A1C data and without diabetes
Inoue 2007449745.6 (6.6)23.8Japanese5.2 (0.5)5.1 (0.5)FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or treatment by oral agents or insulinAll employees who participated in annual health screening; persons with self-reported diabetes or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Ko 2000208735.0 (7.7)87.5Chinese5.8 (0.8)5.4 (0.7)2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/lRandomly recruited from the patients without diabetes; patients with FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Kolberg 2009632549.9 (1.7)38.4Danes6.0 (0.1)5.7 (0.2)2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/lPersons in an “at-risk” subpopulation of randomized sample aged ≥ 39 years, with BMI ≥ 25 and without diabetes; persons with FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Lee 2002504456.0 (NR)67.3American IndiansWomen:Women:2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/lIndians who participated in the Strong Heart Study without diabetes at baseline; persons with 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT were excluded
120: <5.1193: <5.3
98: 5.1–5.4199: 5.3–5.7
121: ≥5.5193: ≥5.8
Men:Men:
59: <5.2185: <5.4
50: 5.2–5.5183: 5.4–5.8
56: ≥5.6179: ≥5.9
Little 19942576.146.7 (12.0)66.9Pima Indians60%:<6.03% 40%:≥6.03%NR2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.8 mmol/lResidents who participated in a longitudinal epidemiological study; persons with 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or used insulin or oral agents were excluded
Narayan 19961,108535.3 (9.8)63.1Pima Indians6.2 (0.6)5.4 (0.6)2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTTAll residents aged 25–64 years without diabetes; persons with 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT were excluded
Hijpels 1996158364.2 (2.5)55.9CaucasianMedian (25th–75th per.) 5.5 (5.2–5.9) no-converters 5.7 (5.3–6.0) convertersMedian (25th–75th per.) 5.9 (5.6–6.4) no-converters 6.1 (5.6–6.6) converters2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTTPersons with IGT randomly selected from the registry of Hoorn; persons with 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT were excluded
Norberg 20064681251.7 (7.6)40.4Sweden4.4 (0.3)5.5 (0.7)2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.8 mmol/lCommunity population in the county of Vaesterbotten who participated in an intervention program; persons with 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT were excluded
Pradhan 200726,56310.854.6 (7.1)100.0NR5.0 (0.4)NRSelf-reportRandomized female health professional aged ≥ 45 years without diabetes and missing baseline BMI; persons with self-reported diabetes were excluded
Preiss 2,0091,6202.866.0 (12.0)32.7NR6.2 (0.7)NR2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.8 mmol/lParticipants in CHARM without diabetes; persons with 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Sato 20096,804447.7 (4.2)0Japanese5.2 (0.4)5.4 (0.5)FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or treatment by oral agentsParticipants aged 40–55 years with FPG < 7.0 mmol/l who did not take an oral agent or insulin; persons with FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Shimazaki 20075133Middle-aged52.4JapaneseNRNR2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.8 mmol/lPatients selected from the hospital information system; patients with 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Yoshinaga 1996819552.3 (6.2)15.9JapaneseNRNR2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/l in an OGTT or FBG ≥ 6.7 mmol/lGovernment officials and their spouses with A1C ≥ 6.2%, FBG ≥ 100 mg/dl, and positive urine sugar; persons with self-reported diabetes and FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l were excluded
Mean/Total44,2035.653.4 (7.2)69.05.2 (0.4)5.4 (0.5)
Range27–26,5632.8–1235.0–66.00–1004.4–6.25.1–5.7
  • CHARM, the Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity; FBG, fasting blood glucose; F/U, follow-up; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; NR, not reported; OGTT, oral glucose tolerant test; per., percentile; 2-h PG, 2-h plasma glucose.