Table 1

Characteristics of the study sample (n = 178) and descriptive statistics for the instruments

Age (years)64.3 ± 13.54
A1C (%)*6.98 ± 0.99 (5.2–11.0)
Duration of diabetes (years)7.03 ± 4.07
Sex
    Male82 (46.1)
    Female96 (53.9)
Race
    Asians58 (32.6)
    Blacks45 (25.3)
    Whites56 (31.5)
    Other19 (10.6)
Education
    Less than high school14 (7.9)
    High school graduate36 (20.2)
    Some college, 1–3 years65 (36.5)
    Bachelor's degree36 (20.2)
    Graduate degree27 (15.2)
Income (U.S.D.)
    Less than $10,00028 (15.7)
    $10,000∼$29,99941 (23.0)
    $30,000∼$49,99937 (20.8)
    $50,000∼$69,99921 (11.8)
    $70,000∼$99,99919 (10.7)
    Greater than $100,00032 (18.0)
DAS-3 (scale range)
    Need for special training (1–5)4.20 ± 0.37 (2.4–5.0)
    Seriousness of diabetes (1–5)3.75 ± 0.52 (2.57–5.0)
    Value of tight control (1–5)3.71 ± 0.50 (2.14–5.0)
    Psychosocial impact of diabetes (1–5)3.68 ± 0.57 (2.0–5.0)
    Patient autonomy (1–5)3.68 ± 0.42 (2.5–4.75)
DKT (0–100%)67.22 ± 18.88 (21.43–100.0)
DSES (scale range)
    Sum (1–6)4.54 ± 0.77 (2.06–5.94)
    Diabetes routine (1–6)5.04 ± 0.85 (1.75–6.0)
    Self-treat (1–6)4.62 ± 1.02 (1.0–6.0)
    Certainty (1–6)4.20 ± 1.23 (1.25–6.0)
    Diet (1–6)4.27 ± 1.28 (1.0–6.0)
    Exercise (1–6)4.41 ± 1.44 (1.0–6.0)
IPC-18 (scale range)
    Communication
Lack of clarity (1–5)4.03 ± 0.99 (1.0–5.0)
Elicited concern (1–5)4.16 ± 0.85 (1.33–5.0)
Explained results (1–5)4.46 ± 0.81 (1.0–5.0)
    Decision making
Worked together (1–5)3.79 ± 1.01 (1.0–5.0)
    Interpersonal style
Compassionate, respectful (1–5)4.34 ± 0.72 (1.33–5.0)
Discriminated due to race/ethnicity (1–5)4.76 ± 0.60 (2.0–5.0)
Disrespectful office staff (1–5)4.50 ± 0.80 (1.5–5.0)
BIT (scale range)
    Sum (1–10)4.89 ± 1.63 (1.0–10.0)
    Fear of injection (1–10)4.44 ± 2.87 (1.0–10.0)
    Expectations regarding positive outcome (1–10)5.49 ± 2.13 (1.0–10.0)
    Expected hardship (1–10)3.34 ± 2.60 (1.0–10.0)
    Stigmatization (1–10)5.31 ± 2.55 (1.0–10.0)
    Fear of hypoglycemia (1–10)6.38 ± 2.71 (1.0–10.0)
Number of comorbidities§
    0118 (66.3)
    142 (23.6)
    27 (3.9)
    31 (0.6)
    Missing10 (5.6)
Number of microvascular diabetic complications
    0146 (82.0)
    116 (9.0)
    25 (2.8)
    31 (0.6)
    Missing10 (5.6)
  • Data are means ± SD (range), or n (%).

  • *n = 158.

  • †Other: American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander.

  • n = 168.

  • §Comorbidities: congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arthritis.