Table 1

Mean cognitive relative scores* in adulthood and childhood, and change in relative scores from childhood to adulthood† in diabetic subjects with and without early‡ SH

Cognitive domainDiabetes with early SHDiabetes without early SHDifference§95% CIP
Relative score95% CIRelative score95% CI
Adulthood
    Memory−0.7−1.40.00.1−0.30.6−0.8−1.70.00.06
    Motor speed0.1−0.60.8−0.3−0.80.20.4−0.51.30.35
    Psychomotor efficiency−1.1−2.0−0.30.1−0.40.7−1.3−2.3−0.20.02
    Attention−0.3−1.00.3−0.1−0.60.3−0.2−1.00.60.61
    Problem solving−2.2−3.0−1.50.0−0.60.5−2.2−3.2−1.2<0.001
    Spatial function−1.0−2.00.1−0.1−0.80.6−0.9−2.20.40.18
    Verbal function−1.7−2.6−0.8−0.2−0.80.4−1.5−2.6−0.40.01
    Overall−1.0−1.5−0.5−0.1−0.40.2−0.9−1.5−0.30.003
Childhood
    Memory−0.5−1.30.30.2−0.40.7−0.7−1.70.30.18
    Motor speed0.1−0.70.9−0.3−0.90.20.4−0.51.40.36
    Psychomotor efficiency−0.8−1.50.00.2−0.30.7−1.0−1.9−0.10.04
    Attention−1.9−3.7−0.10.5−0.61.7−2.4−4.7−0.20.04
    Problem solving−0.3−0.80.20.0−0.40.3−0.3−0.90.40.41
    Spatial function−0.2−1.10.7−0.1−0.70.5−0.1−1.21.00.80
    Verbal function−1.0−1.7−0.30.0−0.50.4−1.0−1.8−0.10.03
    Overall−0.7−1.2−0.10.1−0.30.5−0.7−1.50.00.048
Change from childhood to adulthood
    Memory−0.1−0.80.6−0.1−0.50.40.0−0.90.80.94
    Motor speed0.0−0.80.80.0−0.50.60.0−1.00.90.96
    Psychomotor efficiency−0.4−1.00.3−0.1−0.50.4−0.3−1.10.50.45
    Attention1.5−0.43.4−0.5−1.70.72.0−0.34.30.09
    Problem solving−1.9−2.7−1.20.0−0.60.5−1.9−2.9−0.9<0.001
    Spatial function−0.8−1.60.00.0−0.60.5−0.8−1.80.30.14
    Verbal function−0.7−1.50.1−0.2−0.70.3−0.5−1.50.50.28
    Overall−0.3−0.70.0−0.1−0.40.1−0.2−0.70.20.34
  • *Difference in test scores between diabetic subjects and control subjects with the SD among control subjects as the unit of measure.

  • †Computed as (relative score at follow-up–relative score at baseline).

  • ‡Defined as first SH ≤10 years of age.

  • §Difference in relative score between diabetic subjects with and without early SH.

  • P value for the difference between diabetic subjects with and without early SH.

  • n = 8 (diabetic–matched control subject) pairs.