Table 2

Baseline characteristics of individuals with NGT (n = 1,077) and prediabetes (n = 299) based on their glycemic status at follow-up

NGT at baseline (n = 1,077)Prediabetes (IFG/IGT) at baseline (n = 299)
Remained as NGTProgressed to prediabetesProgressed to diabetesRegressed to NGTRemained as prediabetesProgressed to diabetes
(NGT as NGT)(NGT to IFG/IGT)(NGT to DM)(IFG/IGT to NGT)(IFG/IGT as IFG/IGT)(IFG/IGT to DM)
Variablesn(n = 591)(n = 277)(n = 209)P valuen(n = 52)(n = 71)(n = 176)P value
Male, n (%)445256 (57.5)107 (24.0)82 (18.4)0.20312826 (20.3)30 (23.4)72 (56.3)0.282
Female, n (%)632335 (53.0)170 (26.9)127 (20.1)0.20317126 (15.2)41 (24.0)104 (60.8)0.282
Age (years)1,07735.7 ± 11.139.2 ± 12.0*43.1 ± 12.1*#<0.00129944.7 ± 15.344.7 ± 13.647 ± 13.10.367
BMI (kg/m2)1,07422.9 ± 4.424.5 ± 5.0*24.7 ± 5.0*<0.00129824.9 ± 5.124.9 ± 4.125.8 ± 4.30.225
Waist, male (cm)42382.4 ± 11.985.7 ± 11.888.1 ± 10.5*<0.00112588.1 ± 11.088.8 ± 13.892.1 ± 10.10.206
Waist, female (cm)62380.8 ± 12.184.8 ± 11.7*87.2 ± 11.7*<0.00116585.2 ± 10.787.0 ± 10.089.8 ± 12.10.133
Waist-to-hip ratio1,0310.87 ± 0.100.88 ± 0.080.90 ± 0.070.0012770.91 ± 0.140.90 ± 0.090.91 ± 0.080.707
Systolic BP (mmHg)1,076115 ± 16116 ± 16121 ± 18*#<0.001299128 ± 21128 ± 19129 ± 210.947
Diastolic BP (mmHg)1,07672 ± 1174 ± 1176 ± 11*<0.00129976 ± 1278 ± 1078 ± 110.358
FPG (mg/dL)1,07782 ± 785 ± 7*86 ± 7*<0.00129994 ± 1094 ± 1098 ± 140.022
2-h PG (mg/dL)1,07798 ± 19103 ± 20107 ± 19*#<0.001299138 ± 31146 ± 24157 ± 25<0.001
HbA1c (%)1,0695.4 ± 0.45.5 ± 0.5*5.8 ± 0.5*#<0.0012955.7 ± 0.55.8 ± 0.66.2 ± 0.7<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)1,0693637*40*#<0.001295394044<0.001
Fasting insulin (µIU/mL)§775(n = 403) 6.6(n = 199) 7.3*(n = 173) 9.0*<0.001180(n = 33) 11.0(n = 56) 10.0(n = 145) 11.00.615
2-h PG insulin (µIU/mL)§772(n = 402) 36.6(n = 197) 40.4*(n = 173) 49.4*<0.001178(n = 33) 66.7(n = 55) 66.7(n = 144) 73.70.627
Insulin resistance773(n = 403) 1.4(n = 197) 1.7(n = 173) 2.3*#<0.001180(n = 33) 2.9(n = 56) 2.6(n = 145) 2.90.421
Serum cholesterol (mg/dL)1,074172 ± 37178 ± 35186 ± 40*<0.001299192 ± 42197 ± 33191 ± 370.535
Serum triglycerides (mg/dL)1,074105 ± 61113 ± 53137 ± 85*#<0.001299124 ± 74147 ± 83146 ± 810.194
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)1,07444 ± 1042 ± 942 ± 100.0529945 ± 1542 ± 1042 ± 100.204
Positive family history of diabetes, n (%)1,071184 (31.1)96 (34.7)85 (41.9)0.00629513 (25.0)23 (32.4)81 (47.1)0.002
Current smokers, n (%)1,068102 (17.3)37 (13.5)30 (14.6)0.21729710 (19.2)13 (18.3)23 (13.2)0.220
Current consumption of alcohol, n (%)1,072120 (20.4)47 (17.1)39 (18.7)0.42129917 (32.7)18 (25.4)25 (14.2)0.002
  • Values are presented as mean ± SD for continuous variables and n (%) for proportions. DM, diabetes.

  • *P < 0.05 compared with individuals who remained as NGT;

  • #P < 0.05 compared with those who progressed to prediabetes;

  • P < 0.05 compared with individuals who regressed to NGT;

  • P < 0.05 compared with those who remained as prediabetes;

  • §log transformed;

  • ‖square root transformed; 53 individuals who died and whose glycemic status could not be ascertained were excluded from the analysis.