Table 1

General baseline characteristics of the study population by diabetes status

No diabetesIncident diabetesPrevalent diabetes
n2,4607861
Age (years)55.0 ± 6.857.4 ± 6.660.6 ± 6.5
Sex (% women)51.046.249.2
Level of education (% highly educated)26.812.813.1
Cognitive function domain scores (z scores)
    Memory function0.01 ± 0.940.00 ± 0.89−0.53 ± 0.87
    Speed of cognitive processes0.02 ± 0.83−0.18 ± 0.88−0.51 ± 0.95
    Cognitive flexibility0.02 ± 0.99−0.33 ± 1.00−0.30 ± 1.41
    Global cognitive function0.02 ± 0.72−0.19 ± 0.66−0.45 ± 0.75
Random glucose level (mmol/l)5.3 ± 0.96.9 ± 1.611.4 ± 3.9
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130 ± 17143 ± 19142 ± 18
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82 ± 1088 ± 1184 ± 12
Use of blood pressure lowering medication (%)10.021.841.0
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.84 ± 1.006.09 ± 1.195.70 ± 1.02
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l), men1.23 ± 0.321.04 ± 0.261.17 ± 0.36
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l), women1.55 ± 0.381.20 ± 0.331.23 ± 0.23
History of myocardial infarction (%)1.63.96.6
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 ± 3.630.0 ± 4.929.6 ± 4.9
    Waist circumference (cm), men98.3 ± 8.9105.7 ± 7.9106.1 ± 14.1
    Waist circumference (cm), women88.8 ± 10.5102.1 ± 12.5103.3 ± 10.8
Physical activity (% inactive)*24.624.437.7
Alcohol consumption (% >4 glasses/day)4.89.01.6
Smoking (%)22.223.414.8
Mental health*77 ± 1578 ± 1377 ± 18
Vitality*68 ± 1766 ± 1765 ± 18
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Diabetes is defined as self-reported diabetes (verified by the general practitioner) or having a random plasma glucose level ≥11.1 mmol/l.

  • *Physical inactivity is defined as being classified in the lowest two of four categories (inactive and moderately inactive) according the Wareham classification for physical activity (16). Mental health and vitality scores are based on the SF-36 and represent depressive symptoms. Scores range from 0 to 100 in which higher scores represent better (mental) health (18).