Table 2

Relative changes in cognitive function scores by diabetes status

Basic model*Fully adjusted model
No diabetesIncident diabetesPrevalent diabetesNo diabetesIncident diabetesPrevalent diabetes
Memory function−1.0−2.4§−2.9§−1.0−1.9−2.5
Speed of cognitive processes−1.0−1.9§−1.2−1.0−1.5−1.0
Cognitive flexibility
    ≤60 years−1.00.9−3.2−1.00.6−3.4
    >60 years−1.0−2.6§−3.7−1.0−2.5−3.6
Global cognitive function−1.0−1.9−2.8−1.0−1.6−2.6§
  • Relative decline in cognitive domain scores is shown with individuals with no diabetes as the reference group: in the reference group of “healthy” individuals, we set the cognitive decline to −1.0. The numbers in the columns of patients with diabetes reflect how many times stronger the cognitive decline was among diabetic patients compared with individuals without diabetes. No diabetes indicates no diabetes at baseline or at follow-up (n = 2,460). Incident diabetes indicates no diabetes at baseline and diabetes at follow-up (n = 78). Prevalent diabetes indicates diabetes at baseline and at follow-up (n = 61). Diabetes was defined as reporting to have diabetes (verified by the general practitioner) or having random plasma glucose levels ≥11.1 mmol/l.

  • *Change scores are adjusted for age, sex, level of education, and baseline cognitive score.

  • †Change scores are adjusted for age, sex, level of education, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, use of blood pressure-lowering medication, history of myocardial infarction, depressive symptoms (vitality and mental health), physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and baseline cognitive score.

  • ‡Different from no diabetes group at P < 0.10;

  • §P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01.