Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the cohort by ethnic group according to vital status and sex

Baseline risk factorSouth AsiansAfricansChinese
MenWomenMenWomenMenWomen
AliveDeadAliveDeadAliveDeadAliveDeadAliveDeadAliveDead
n2,2375812,8154248182561,1832092235525832
Age (years)37 (30, 45)54 (46, 63)37 (30, 47)58 (49, 65)38 (31, 49)57 (47, 64)39 (31, 52)57 (50, 65)44 (35, 53)61 (55, 68)43 (35, 51)63 (56, 67)
Smoking50601459701515343623
Education*5118316401231116627619
Prior CVD2111528170503
Hypertension174515462452266526552159
BMI (kg/m2)23 ± 423 ± 424 ± 526 ± 623 ± 423 ± 526 ± 526 ± 524 ± 324 ± 423 ± 424 ± 5
Waist circumference
        (cm)83 ± 1083 ± 1079 ± 1186 ± 1382 ± 1083 ± 1182 ± 1188 ± 1283 ± 986 ± 877 ± 980 ± 10
Hip circumference
        (cm)91 ± 888 ± 894 ± 1095 ± 1292 ± 889 ± 997 ± 1097 ± 1191 ± 790 ± 792 ± 792 ± 8
Glucose tolerance status (%)
    NGT724470387248664065256544
    IFG642278535750
    IGT111518181317172215161922
    NDM721617615819924813
    KDM417526311416627422
  • Data are median (25th, 75th percentile), means ± SD, or %. For those who attended more than one survey, baseline refers to the first survey attended. Those who were missing at follow-up (n = 467) were excluded.

  • *Education is defined as completed secondary school or higher.

  • †CVD defined as previously reported angina, coronary heart disease, stroke, or amputation.

  • ‡Hypertension is defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication.