Table 1

Clinical characteristics and metabolic and anthropometric data of the participants

TotalMaleFemale
DiabetesControlPDiabetesControlPDiabetesControlP
n3141181555315965
Age (years)13.8 ± 2.813.2 ± 2.60.7313.4 ± 2.8013.3 ± 2.440.714.1 ± 2.8513.2 ± 2.70.03
Duration of diabetes (years)5.5 ± 3.45.6 ± 3.405.4 ± 3.40
Pubertal stage (Tanner)3.2 ± 1.52.9 ± 1.40.362.9 ± 1.62.8 ± 1.40.523.5 ± 1.43.0 ± 1.40.15
Height (cm)160.4 ± 14.4156.8 ± 13.60.02160.6 ± 14.7157.6 ± 16.20.24160.3 ± 12.3156.2 ± 12.60.02
Weight (kg)54.9 ± 16.747.9 ± 13.4<0.00153.3 ± 17.446.9 ± 12.10.00456.5 ± 14.448.7 ± 14.40.001
BMI (kg/m2)20.9 ± 3.93919.1 ± 0.3<0.00120.1 ± 3.618.6 ± 2.30.00121.6 ± 4.119.5 ± 3.60.001
Waist circumference (cm)71.2 ± 10.066.7 ± 6.7<0.00170.3 ± 10.065.9 ± 6.50.00172.1 ± 9.967.4 ± 6.8<0.001
SBP (mmHg)101.0 ± 10.198.0 ± 10.20.006101.0 ± 9.896.8 ± 10.70.01101.0 ± 10.399.0 ± 9.60.18
DBP (mmHg)60.5 ± 8.358.5 ± 7.80.2259.6 ± 8.458.1 ± 9.20.2961.5 ± 8.258.8 ± 6.20.009
Smoking11 (3.5)2 (2)0.532 (1.3)0 (0)19 (5.7)2 (3.1)0.52
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio1.4 ± 3.71.3 ± 1.90.721.8 ± 4.91.1 ± 1.70.321.0 ± 1.11.5 ± 2.00.11
S-creatinine (μmol/l)53.1 ± 10.354.5 ± 10.10.2353.7 ± 10.855.5 ± 10.20.352.5 ± 9.753.6 ± 9.90.43
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l)10.9 ± 4.84.9 ± 0.4<0.00110.1 ± 5.14.9 ± 0.4<0.00110.8 ± 4.54.8 ± 0.5<0.001
A1C (%)8.4 ± 1.35.3 ± 0.5<0.0018.3 ± 1.25.3 ± 0.6<0.0018.4 ± 1.35.3 ± 0.4<0.001
Mean A1C (%)8.2 ± 1.08.1 ± 1.08.2 ± 1.0
A1 months*119 ± 104.1120.8 ± 107.1117.9 ± 101.5
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.6 ± 0.94.3 ± 0.80.0024.6 ± 0.84.3 ± 0.80.114.7 ± 0.84.4 ± 0.70.004
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.8 ± 0.41.70 ± 0.40.071.8 ± 0.41.7 ± 0.50.81.8 ± 0.41.7 ± 0.30.20
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.5 ± 0.72.3 ± 0.70.0282.5 ± 0.72.2 ± 0.70.132.5 ± 0.72.4 ± 0.70.09
LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratio1.5 ± 0.61.5 ± 0.70.71.5 ± 0.71.4 ± 0.70.481.5 ±0.61.5 ± 0.60.99
Total-to-LDL cholesterol ratio2.7 ± 0.82.7 ± 0.80.72.7 ± 0.82.6 ± 0.80.482.7 ± 0.72.7 ± 0.70.89
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.8 ± 0.40.7 ± 0.40.320.8 ± 0.40.7 ± 040.350.8 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.40.51
ApoB (g/l)0.7 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.2<0.0010.7 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.20.020.8 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.20.006
ApoA1 (g/l)1.6 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.30.0031.6 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.30.481.6 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.3<0.001
ApoB-to-ApoA1 ratio0.5 ± 0.20.5 ± 0.30.750.5 ± 1.60.5 ± 0.20.370.5 ± 0.10.5 ± 0.30.44
Insulin dose (U/kg/day)0.9 ± 0.40.9 ± 0.30.9 ± 0.4
Injections per day
    1–21 (0.4)01 (0.6)
    36 (2.4)3 (2.5)3 (2.3)
    ≥495 (37.5)45 (37.5)50 (37.6)
Insulin pumps151 (59.7)72 (60)79 (59.3)
  • Data are means ± SD and n (%).

  • *The number of months from the diagnosis until the first registered A1C value multiplied by A1C units above the upper normal reference value (6.4%) of the first registered value, plus the number of months from the first to second registration multiplied by A1C units above the upper normal reference value of the second registered value, and so on until the time of cIMT analysis.