Table 2

Maternal serum FAs by glycemic group

GDM (μmol/l)Impaired GCT Non-GDM (μmol/l)Normal GCT (μmol/l)P for trendGDM (%)Impaired GCT Non-GDM (%)Normal GCT (%)P for trend
Entry
    SFAs
        Myristic acid (14:0)11.47 ± 0.869.79 ± 0.698.30 ± 0.62*0.0033.09 ± 0.212.89 ± 0.172.69 ± 0.15NS
        Palmitic acid (16:0)150.91 ± 9.91144.80 ± 7.93121.89 ± 7.080.00339.82 ± 1.2639.61 ± 1.0138.87 ± 0.90NS
        Stearic acid (18:0)69.59 ± 4.0568.17 ± 3.2463.72 ± 2.90NS19.15 ± 0.9919.98 ± 0.7921.84 ± 0.710.019
        Total SFAs231.90 ± 13.91222.76 ± 11.12193.90 ± 9.940.01762.07 ± 2.0762.49 ± 1.6563.40 ± 1.48NS
    MUFAs
        Palmitoleic acid (16:1)10.90 ± 1.529.54 ± 1.207.41 ± 1.080.0502.27 ± 0.182.07 ± 0.141.60 ± 0.13*0.002
        Oleic acid (18:1)104.17 ± 11.0796.03 ± 8.8583.41 ± 7.91NS22.72 ± 1.2722.22 ± 1.0221.48 ± 0.91NS
        Total MUFAs114.62 ± 12.45105.45 ± 9.9690.59 ± 8.89NS24.90 ± 1.4224.26 ± 1.1423.04 ± 11.02NS
    PUFAs
        Linoleic acid (18:2)53.72 ± 5.7250.27 ± 4.2645.29 ± 3.80NS11.96 ± 0.6812.20 ± 0.5412.44 ± 0.48NS
        Linolenic acid (18:3)1.98 ± 0.221.64 ± 0.181.61 ± 0.16NS0.42 ± 0.030.39 ± 0.030.43 ± 0.02NS
        Arachidonic acid (20:4)2.28 ± 0.242.01 ± 0.191.84 ± 0.17NS0.55 ± 0.050.53 ± 0.040.54 ± 0.04NS
        EPA (20:5)0.45 ± 0.040.41 ± 0.030.33 ± 0.030.0110.10 ± 0.010.10 ± 0.010.10 ± 0.01NS
        DHA (22:6)0.27 ± 0.060.22 ± 0.050.34 ± 0.04NS0.07 ± 0.020.06 ± 0.020.10 ± 0.01NS
        Total PUFAs58.42 ± 5.5754.41 ± 4.6049.24 ± 4.11NS13.03 ± 0.7413.25 ± 0.5913.56 ± 0.53NS
        Total free FAs405.01 ± 29.53379.63 ± 23.47333.75 ± 21.110.039
Third trimester
    SFAs
        Myristic acid (14:0)11.65 ± 0.7710.08 ± 0.589.69 ± 0.520.0012.99 ± 0.213.05 ± 0.163.34 ± 0.14NS
        Palmitic acid (16:0)148.38 ± 9.46128.56 ± 7.08117.26 ± 6.36*0.00836.87 ± 1.1236.85 ± 0.8437.71 ± 0.75NS
        Stearic acid (18:0)62.73 ± 4.0257.43 ± 3.0155.49 ± 2.70NS15.71 ± 0.7617.23 ± 0.5718.49 ± 0.51*0.002
        Total SFAs222.76 ± 13.62196.06 ± 10.2182.44 ± 9.15*0.01655.57 ± 1.7557.12 ± 1.3159.55 ± 1.17*0.045
    MUFAs
        Palmitoleic acid (16:1)12.23 ± 1.228.89 ± 0.916.97 ± 0.82*0.00052.65 ± 0.172.24 ± 0.121.78 ± 0.11*§0.001
        Oleic acid (18:1)119.98 ± 10.78100.41 ± 8.0788.42 ± 7.240.01727.14 ± 1.1026.24 ± 0.8324.52 ± 0.740.03
        Total MUFAs132.21 ± 11.87109.30 ± 8.8995.39 ± 7.970.01129.78 ± 1.2228.48 ± 0.9126.30 ± 0.820.011
    PUFAs
        Linoleic acid (18:2)59.10 ± 4.8448.47 ± 3.6344.44 ± 3.250.01713.54 ± 0.6313.29 ± 0.4713.16 ± 0.43NS
        Linolenic acid (18:3)2.11 ± 0.221.68 ± 0.161.49 ± 0.140.0210.47 ± 0.030.45 ± 0.020.42 ± 0.02NS
        Arachidonic acid (20:4)1.95 ± 0.181.60 ± 0.141.28 ± 0.12*0.0030.46 ± 0.050.48 ± 0.030.42 ± 0.03NS
        EPA (20:5)0.45 ± 0.040.37 ± 0.030.33 ± 0.030.0170.10 ± 0.010.10 ± 0.010.10 ± 0.01NS
        DHA (22:6)0.33 ± 0.030.25 ± 0.020.21 ± 0.02*0.00040.08 ± 0.010.08 ± 0.010.07 ± 0.01NS
        Total PUFAs63.94 ± 5.2352.37 ± 3.9247.70 ± 3.52*0.01414.65 ± 0.6914.40 ± 0.5214.15 ± 0.47NS
        Total free FAs418.91 ± 28.71357.31 ± 21.34325.53 ± 19.29*0.009
  • Data are means ± SE in umol/l or % of total FAs.

  • *P < 0.01 vs. GDM;

  • P < 0.05 vs. GDM;

  • P < 0.05 vs. impaired GCT non-GDM;

  • §P < 0.01 vs. impaired GCT non-GDM.