Table 1

Maternal, pregnancy, and neonatal characteristics and metabolic parameters in a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort study

All subjectsNormal glucose toleranceImpaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus
n24819157
Mother
    Ethnicity: French Canadians112 (45.1)88 (46.1)24 (42.1)
    Age (years)31 ± 4.730.8 ± 4.731.7 ± 4.7
≥3557 (23.0)43 (22.5)14 (24.6)
    Primiparous100 (40.3)84 (44.0)16 (28.1)§
    Tobacco smoking (yes/no) (%)18 (7.3)15 (7.9)3 (5.3)
    Drinking alcohol (yes/no) (%)34 (13.7)19 (10.0)15 (26.3)
    Family history of diabetes (%)47 (19.0)31 (16.2)16 (28.1)§
    Height (cm)164.1 ± 6.4164.9 ± 6.3162.8 ± 6.4§
Pregnancy
    Prepregnancy weight (kg)64.5 ± 14.163.8 ± 13.267.2 ± 16.6
    Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)23.9 ± 5.023.4 ± 4.625.3 ± 5.9§
    Gestational age at recruitment (weeks)25.7 ± 1.125.8 ± 1.125.6 ± 1.1
    Weight gain in pregnancy (kg)15.7 ± 5.716.0 ± 5.514.9 ± 6.2
    Gestational hypertension14 (5.7)13 (6.8)1 (1.8)
    Vaginosis or other minor infections*39 (15.7)30 (15.7)9 (15.8)
    Glucose intravenously at delivery119 (48.4)91 (47.9)28 (50.0)
    Cesarean section70 (28.5)47 (24.7)23 (41.1)§
Baby
    Sex (boy)133 (53.9)102 (53.7)31 (54.4)
    Gestational age (weeks)39.0 ± 1.539.1 ± 1.438.5 ± 1.7§
    Birth weight (g)3,444 ± 4453,447 ± 4323,438 ± 489
    Birth length (cm)50.6 ± 2.150.7 ± 2.150.3 ± 2.1
    Ponderal index (kg/m3)26.6 ± 2.826.4 ± 2.827.0 ± 3.0
    Birth weight z score0.1 ± 0.90.1 ± 0.90.3 ± 1.1
    Preterm birth (<37 weeks)11 (4.4)6 (3.1)5 (8.8)
  • Data are means ± SD for continuous variables and n (%) for frequency variables. n = 248.

  • *Minor infections refer to any treatment for infections during pregnancy. No patients had any “major” infections requiring hospitalizations or emergency care.

  • †Patients who were given glucose intravenously during the delivery (5% dextrose in all such cases).

  • ‡Based on sex- and gestational age–specific Canadian fetal growth standards.

  • §P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01 in tests for differences comparing women with impaired glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus to those with normal glucose tolerance.