Table 3

Regression coefficients (95% CI) for the associations of maternal glucose tolerance (glucose concentration at the OGTT), prepregnancy adiposity (BMI), and fetal adiposity (ponderal index) with cord blood glucose-to-insulin ratio and proinsulin concentration

Cord blood glucose-to-insulin ratioP valueCord blood proinsulin (pmol/l)P value
OGTT glucose, per SD (30 mg/dl ) increase
    Crude−6.1 (−8.8 to −3.5)<0.00013.6 (1.9 to 5.3)<0.0001
    Adjusting for prepregnancy BMI−5.5 (−8.1 to −2.9)<0.00013.4 (1.7 to 5.1)<0.0001
    Further adjusting for fetal PI−5.3 (−8.0 to −2.6)0.00023.0 (1.3 to 4.7)0.0005
    Full adjustment*−5.3 (−8.3 to −2.3)0.00064.1 (2.3 to 6.0)<0.0001
Prepregnancy BMI, per SD (5 units) increase
    Crude−4.7 (−7.4 to −2.1)0.022.0 (0.3 to 3.7)0.02
    Adjusting for OGTT glucose−3.8 (−6.5 to −1.2)0.0051.5 (−0.2 to 3.1)0.09
    Further adjusting for fetal PI−3.3 (−5.9 to −0.7)0.011.2 (−0.5 to 2.8)0.16
    Full adjustment*−3.2 (−6.1 to −0.3)0.031.3 (−0.4 to 3.1)0.14
Infant PI, per SD (2.8 units) increase
    Crude−5.6 (−8.2 to −2.9)0.00023.2 (1.5 to 4.9)0.0002
    Adjusting for OGTT glucose−5.2 (−7.8 to −2.7)<0.00013.0 (1.4 to 4.6)0.0004
    Further adjusting for prepregnancy BMI−4.9 (−7.5 to −2.4)0.00022.9 (1.3 to 4.5)0.0005
    Full adjustment*−5.0 (−7.8 to −2.3)0.00042.7 (0.9 to 4.4)0.003
  • n = 248 mother-infant pairs. OGTT = 50 g, 1-h OGTT at 24–28 weeks of gestational age; PI, ponderal index (kilograms per cubic meter).

  • *Variables in the full adjustment models included OGTT glucose concentration, prepregnancy BMI, maternal ethnicity, age, parity, smoking, alcohol use, family history of diabetes, weight gain in pregnancy (SD score), gestational hypertensive complications, bacterial vaginosis and other minor infections, mode of delivery, maternal glucose (5% dextrose) intravenously during delivery, infant sex, gestational age (weeks), birth weight (SD score), and ponderal index (SD score). The adjusted results were similar in subgroups with or without maternal glucose intravenous infusion during delivery and among boys and girls (data not shown).