Table 1

Baseline characteristics by diabetes status at follow-up

NonconvertorsConvertorsP
n698128
Age (years)*54.4 ± 0.356.5 ± 0.70.009
Female (%)*55.4 (51.7–59.1)59.4 (50.7–67.5)0.410
Ethnicity (%)*0.647
    African Americans25.4 (22.3–28.7)22.7 (16.2–30.7)
    Mexican Americans34.2 (30.8–37.8)38.3 (30.3–47.0)
    Non-Hispanic whites40.4 (36.8–44.1)39.1 (31.0–47.8)
Family history of diabetes (%)37.6 (34.0–41.4)50.6 (41.7–59.6)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)27.8 ± 0.230.8 ± 0.5<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)89.2 ± 0.495.5 ± 1.0<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.35 ± 0.025.83 ± 0.05<0.001
2-h glucose (mmol/l)6.61 ± 0.068.37 ± 0.15<0.001
Impaired glucose tolerance (%)25.6 (22.6–29.2)64.3 (55.3–72.4)<0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)70.8 ± 1.4106.7 ± 5.5<0.001
Insulin sensitivity index (SI) (× 10−4 min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)1.92 ± 0.061.03 ± 0.13<0.001
Acute insulin response (AIR) (μU/ml)52.5 ± 1.638.9 ± 2.8<0.001
Disposition index (SI × AIR)96.5 ± 2.941.2 ± 3.4<0.001
Glucose effectiveness (× 100 min−1)2.03 ± 0.031.58 ± 0.07<0.001
  • Data are n (%) with 95% CI or means ± SD. Results are adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and research center.

  • *Unadjusted results;

  • †log-transformed variables. These variables were then back-transformed to their units for presentation in the table.